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The pH-selective insertion and folding of a membrane peptide, pHLIP [pH (low) insertion peptide], can be used to target acidic tissue in vivo, including acidic foci in tumors, kidneys, and inflammatory sites. In a mouse breast adenocarcinoma model, fluorescently labeled pHLIP finds solid acidic tumors with high accuracy and accumulates in them even at a(More)
The membrane peptide pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP) lives in three worlds, being soluble in aqueous solution at pH 7.4, binding to the surface of lipid bilayers, and inserting as a transbilayer helix at low pH. With low pH driving the process, pHLIP can translocate cargo molecules attached to its C-terminus via a disulfide and release them in the(More)
The pH low-insertion peptide (pHLIP) serves as a model system for peptide insertion and folding across a lipid bilayer. It has three general states: (I) soluble in water or (II) bound to the surface of a lipid bilayer as an unstructured monomer, and (III) inserted across the bilayer as a monomeric alpha-helix. We used fluorescence spectroscopy and(More)
—Gramicidin is a pore-forming peptide which exhibits lethal properties against a large spectrum of cells. It forms monovalent cation-specific channel in the lipid bilayer of a cellular membrane with limited permeability to anions or polyvalent cations. Both ions and water move through the pore which is formed by the peptide backbone. We detected formation(More)
—Dimethylformamide (DMF) is a hydrophilic aprotic solvent often used in peptide coupling, an essential process in the pharmaceutical industry. Its use in biological study is typically in the role of a peptide solvent when evaluating the efficacy of peptides and their effect on the cellular membrane. In evaluating the effect of the peptide gramicidin on(More)
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