Michael Schumacher

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Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, affect 10% of the world's population and are largely due to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Species differences in embryonic development and architecture of the adult stomach make animal models suboptimal for studying human stomach organogenesis and pathogenesis, and there is no(More)
The translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) is localized primarily in the outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid-synthesizing cells, including those in the central and peripheral nervous system. One of its main functions is the transport of the substrate cholesterol into mitochondria, a prerequisite for steroid synthesis. TSPO expression may constitute a(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of cortical and spinal motor neurons, for which there is no effective treatment. Using a cell-based assay for compounds capable of preventing motor neuron cell death in vitro, a collection of approximately 40,000 low-molecular-weight compounds was(More)
Some neurosteroids have been shown to display beneficial effects on neuroprotection in rodents. To investigate the physiopathological significance of neurosteroids in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we compared the concentrations of pregnenolone, pregnenolone sulfate (PREGS), dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), progesterone, and(More)
Progesterone is shown here to be produced from pregnenolone by Schwann cells in peripheral nerves. After cryolesion of the sciatic nerve in male mice, axons regenerate and become myelinated. Blocking either the local synthesis or the receptor-mediated action of progesterone impaired remyelination. Administration of progesterone or its precursor,(More)
We have previously shown that progesterone (PROG) is synthesized by Schwann cells and promotes myelin formation in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). We now report that this neurosteroid also stimulates myelination in organotypic slice cultures of 7-day-old (P7) rat and mouse cerebellum. Myelination was evaluated by immunofluorescence analysis of the(More)
Mifepristone (RU486), which binds with high affinity to both progesterone and glucocorticosteroid receptors (PR and GR), is well known for its use in the termination of unwanted pregnancy, but other activities including neuroprotection have been suggested. Cerebellar organotypic cultures from 3 to 7 postnatal day rat (P3-P7) were studied to examine the(More)
The utility and safety of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy has recently been put into question by large clinical trials. Their outcome has been extensively commented upon, but discussions have mainly been limited to the effects of estrogens. In fact, progestagens are generally only considered with respect to their usefulness in preventing estrogen(More)
There is a growing awareness in the multiagent systems research community that the environment plays a prominent role in multiagent systems. Originating from research on behavior-based agent systems and situated multiagent systems, the importance of the environment in multiagent systems is now gradually accepted in the multiagent system community in(More)
Neurosteroids are synthetisized in the central and the peripheral nervous system, in glial cells, and also in neurons, from cholesterol or steroidal precursors imported from peripheral sources. They include 3 beta-hydroxy-delta 5-compounds, such as pregnenolone (PREG) and dehydroepiandrosterone, their sulfate esters, and compounds known as reduced(More)