Michael Schumacher

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Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, affect 10% of the world's population and are largely due to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Species differences in embryonic development and architecture of the adult stomach make animal models suboptimal for studying human stomach organogenesis and pathogenesis, and there is no(More)
The translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) is localized primarily in the outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid-synthesizing cells, including those in the central and peripheral nervous system. One of its main functions is the transport of the substrate cholesterol into mitochondria, a prerequisite for steroid synthesis. TSPO expression may constitute a(More)
Some neurosteroids have been shown to display beneficial effects on neuroprotection in rodents. To investigate the physiopathological significance of neurosteroids in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we compared the concentrations of pregnenolone, pregnenolone sulfate (PREGS), dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), progesterone, and(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of cortical and spinal motor neurons, for which there is no effective treatment. Using a cell-based assay for compounds capable of preventing motor neuron cell death in vitro, a collection of approximately 40,000 low-molecular-weight compounds was(More)
Progesterone is shown here to be produced from pregnenolone by Schwann cells in peripheral nerves. After cryolesion of the sciatic nerve in male mice, axons regenerate and become myelinated. Blocking either the local synthesis or the receptor-mediated action of progesterone impaired remyelination. Administration of progesterone or its precursor,(More)
Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a major role in the development of the nervous system and contributes to neuronal plasticity. However, its role in myelination remains unclear. Here, we identify the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as an essential driver of myelin gene expression. The selective inhibition of Wnt components by small interfering RNA or dominant-negative(More)
Neurosteroids are synthetisized in the central and the peripheral nervous system, in glial cells, and also in neurons, from cholesterol or steroidal precursors imported from peripheral sources. They include 3 beta-hydroxy-delta 5-compounds, such as pregnenolone (PREG) and dehydroepiandrosterone, their sulfate esters, and compounds known as reduced(More)
The effects of prolonged intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) steroid infusions on memory performances (Y-maze arm discrimination test) and on neurosteroids brain levels were studied in young adult male mice. The Y-maze test consisted of two trials separated by a time interval. In the first trial, one arm of the maze (subsequently called novel arm) was closed,(More)
We have previously shown that progesterone (PROG) is synthesized by Schwann cells and promotes myelin formation in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). We now report that this neurosteroid also stimulates myelination in organotypic slice cultures of 7-day-old (P7) rat and mouse cerebellum. Myelination was evaluated by immunofluorescence analysis of the(More)
Among the different steroids found in the brain, pregnenolone sulfate (3beta-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one-3-sulfate; PREGS) is known to enhance hippocampal-associated memory. The present study employs rat hippocampal slices to investigate the ability of PREGS to modulate long-term potentiation (LTP), a phenomenon considered as a model of synaptic plasticity(More)