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Excessive alcohol use, a major cause of morbidity and mortality, is less well understood than other addictive disorders. Dopamine release in ventral striatum is a common element of drug reward, but alcohol has an unusually complex pharmacology, and humans vary greatly in their alcohol responses. This variation is related to genetic susceptibility for(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. The major components of plaque, beta-amyloid peptides (Abetas), are produced from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the activity of beta- and gamma-secretases. beta-secretase activity cleaves APP to define the(More)
Articular cartilage plays an essential role in health and mobility, but is frequently damaged or lost in millions of people that develop arthritis. The molecular mechanisms that create and maintain this thin layer of cartilage that covers the surface of bones in joint regions are poorly understood, in part because tools to manipulate gene expression(More)
In vivo imaging and quantification of amyloid-β plaque (Aβ) burden in small-animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a valuable tool for translational research such as developing specific imaging markers and monitoring new therapy approaches. Methodological constraints such as image resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) and lack of suitable(More)
The mouse Etl1 gene encodes a nuclear protein belonging to the rapidly growing SNF2/SWI2 family. Members of this family are related to helicases and nucleic-acid-dependent ATPases and have functions in essential cellular processes such as transcriptional regulation, maintenance of chromosome stability and various aspects of DNA repair. The ETL1 protein is(More)
BACKGROUND Transgenic mice expressing mutated amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin (PS)-1 or -2 have been successfully used to model cerebral beta-amyloidosis, one of the characteristic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the use of many transgenic lines is limited by premature death, low breeding efficiencies and late onset(More)
We have generated mouse embryonic stem cell lines that carry lacZ enhancer trap constructs integrated in their genome. Fifty-nine cell lines were analysed for lacZ expression in undifferentiated stem cells and at day 7.5, 8.5 and 12.5 of development in chimaeric embryos obtained after blastocyst injection. In 13 cell lines the lacZ reporter gene was(More)
In vivo imaging and quantification of amyloid-b plaque (Ab) burden in small-animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a valuable tool for translational research such as developing specific imaging markers and monitoring new therapy approaches. Methodological constraints such as image resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) and lack of suitable(More)
A novel mouse gene, Enhancer trap locus 1 (Etl-1), was identified in close proximity to a lacZ enhancer trap integration in the mouse genome showing a specific beta-galactosidase staining pattern during development. In situ analysis revealed a widespread but not ubiquitous expression of Etl-1 throughout development with particularly high levels in the(More)
Synovial joints are crucial for support and locomotion in vertebrates, and are the frequent site of serious skeletal defects and degenerative diseases in humans. Growth and differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5) is one of the earliest markers of joint formation, is required for normal joint development in both mice and humans, and has been genetically linked to(More)
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