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Clostridial acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation is a natural source for microbial n-butanol production and regained much interest in academia and industry in the past years. Due to the difficult genetic accessibility of Clostridium acetobutylicum and other solventogenic clostridia, successful metabolic engineering approaches are still rare. In this(More)
Gene therapy vectors based on adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) show promise for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. In prior work, subretinal injections of AAV2, AAV5, and AAV2 pseudotyped with AAV5 capsids (AAV2/5) showed variable retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor cell transduction, while AAV2/1 predominantly transduced the(More)
Gene transfer using adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) has been effective for treating inherited retinal diseases in animal models. Further evaluation in primates must be performed prior to clinical application, however, because of the difference between the retina of the primate and those of other animals. Prior work has shown that AAV2 can transduce(More)
Neuronal arborization is regulated by cell-autonomous and nonautonomous mechanisms including endosomal signaling via BDNF/TrkB. The endosomal Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 6 (NHE6) is mutated in a new autism-related disorder. NHE6 functions to permit proton leak from endosomes, yet the mechanisms causing disease are unknown. We demonstrate that loss of NHE6 results in(More)
The improvement of safety and titer of retroviral vectors produced in standard retroviral packaging cell lines is hampered because production relies on uncontrollable vector integration events. The influences of chromosomal surroundings make it difficult to dissect the performance of a specific vector from the chromosomal surroundings of the respective(More)
In response to acute damage, Müller glia in the chicken retina have been shown to be a source of proliferating progenitor-like cells. The secreted factors and signaling pathways that regulate this process remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to test whether secreted factors, which are known to promote glial differentiation during development,(More)
SNARE complex formation among syntaxin 1, VAMP 2, and SNAP-25 triggers fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane. After fusion the SNARE complex is disassembled by NSF and alpha-SNAP. These reactions have already been characterized with recombinant proteins lacking the authentic protein modifications. To study the role of(More)
Intellectual disability (ID), often attributed to autosomal-recessive mutations, occurs in 40% of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). For this reason, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of runs of homozygosity (ROH) in simplex ASD-affected families consisting of a proband diagnosed with ASD and at least one unaffected sibling. In these families, probands(More)