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Clostridial acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation is a natural source for microbial n-butanol production and regained much interest in academia and industry in the past years. Due to the difficult genetic accessibility of Clostridium acetobutylicum and other solventogenic clostridia, successful metabolic engineering approaches are still rare. In this(More)
Gene therapy vectors based on adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) show promise for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. In prior work, subretinal injections of AAV2, AAV5, and AAV2 pseudotyped with AAV5 capsids (AAV2/5) showed variable retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor cell transduction, while AAV2/1 predominantly transduced the(More)
Gene transfer using adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) has been effective for treating inherited retinal diseases in animal models. Further evaluation in primates must be performed prior to clinical application, however, because of the difference between the retina of the primate and those of other animals. Prior work has shown that AAV2 can transduce(More)
Neuronal arborization is regulated by cell-autonomous and nonautonomous mechanisms including endosomal signaling via BDNF/TrkB. The endosomal Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 6 (NHE6) is mutated in a new autism-related disorder. NHE6 functions to permit proton leak from endosomes, yet the mechanisms causing disease are unknown. We demonstrate that loss of NHE6 results in(More)
A new adeno-associated virus (AAV), referred to as AAV(VR-942), has been isolated as a contaminant of adenovirus strain simian virus 17. The sequence of the rep gene places it in the AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) complementation group, while the capsid is only 88% identical to that of AAV2. High-level AAV(VR-942) transduction activity requires cell surface heparan(More)
Intellectual disability (ID), often attributed to autosomal-recessive mutations, occurs in 40% of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). For this reason, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of runs of homozygosity (ROH) in simplex ASD-affected families consisting of a proband diagnosed with ASD and at least one unaffected sibling. In these families, probands(More)
OBJECTIVE Recently, Christianson syndrome (CS) has been determined to be caused by mutations in the X-linked Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 6 (NHE6). We aimed to determine the diagnostic criteria and mutational spectrum for CS. METHODS Twelve independent pedigrees (14 boys, age = 4-19 years) with mutations in NHE6 were administered standardized research(More)
A key step in gene therapy is the efficient transfer of genes in a cell type- and tissue-specific manner. To better understand the mechanism of adeno-associated virus serotype 6 (AAV6) transduction, we used comparative gene analysis (CGA) combined with pathway visualization software to identify a positive correlation between AAV6 transduction and epidermal(More)
With the growing system complexity the need for solid testing increases. The Test and Testing Control Notation, version 3 (TTCN-3) is a standardized testing language to ease the specification of test suites. Test data play an important role during test execution in order to explore all aspects of the system under test. Although TTCN-3 supports good means(More)