Michael Schloter

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Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification, a key process in the global nitrogen cycle that results in the formation of nitrate through microbial activity. The increase in nitrate availability in soils is important for plant nutrition, but it also has considerable impact on groundwater pollution owing to leaching. Here we show that archaeal(More)
Genes of archaea encoding homologues of ammonia monooxygenases have been found on a widespread basis and in large amounts in almost all terrestrial and marine environments, indicating that ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) might play a major role in nitrification on Earth. However, only one pure isolate of this group from a marine environment has so far been(More)
Data on the diversity and distribution of enzyme activities in native ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities are inadequate. A microplate multiple enzymatic test was developed which makes it possible to measure eight enzyme activities on 14 individual, excised ECM root tips. Hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes are involved in the decomposition of lignocellulose,(More)
The relative importance of size and composition of microbial communities in ecosystem functioning is poorly understood. Here, we investigated how community composition and size of selected functional guilds in the nitrogen cycle correlated with agroecosystem functioning, which was defined as microbial process rates, total crop yield and nitrogen content in(More)
Soil pH is a major determinant of microbial ecosystem processes and potentially a major driver of evolution, adaptation, and diversity of ammonia oxidizers, which control soil nitrification. Archaea are major components of soil microbial communities and contribute significantly to ammonia oxidation in some soils. To determine whether pH drives evolutionary(More)
Glacier forefields are ideal ecosystems to study the development of nutrient cycles as well as single turnover processes during soil development. In this study, we examined the ecology of the microbial nitrogen (N) cycle in bulk soil samples from a chronosequence of the Damma glacier, Switzerland. Major processes of the N cycle were reconstructed on the(More)
Real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed for the absolute quantification of different groups of bacteria in pure cultures and in environmental samples. 16S rRNA genes were used as markers for eubacteria, and genes for extracellular peptidases were used as markers for potentially proteolytic bacteria. For the designed 16S rDNA TaqMan assay,(More)
Extracting DNA directly from micro-organisms living in soil is a crucial step for the molecular analysis of soil microbial communities. However, the use of a plethora of different soil DNA extraction protocols, each with its own bias, makes accurate data comparison difficult. To overcome this problem, a method for soil DNA extraction was proposed to the(More)
A microplate fluorimetric assay was developed for measuring potential activities of extracellular enzymes of individual ectomycorrhizal (EM) roots using methylumbelliferone (MU)-labelled fluorescent substrate analogues and microsieves to minimise damage due to manipulation of excised mycorrhizal roots. Control experiments revealed that enzyme activities(More)
This review summarizes aspects of the current knowledge about the ecology of ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria. The development of molecular techniques has contributed enormously to the rapid recent progress in the field. Different techniques for doing so are discussed. The characterization of ammonia-oxidizing and -denitrifying bacteria by(More)