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The conclusions from published results about neurotoxic effects of inorganic lead exposures <700 microg lead/l blood are contradictory at present. Effects measured by neurobehavioural methods are evaluated differently as far as recommendations for a Biological Exposure Index (BEI) of occupational lead exposure are concerned. Arguments against the German BEI(More)
Results from a meta-analysis of aggregated data provoked a new analysis using individual data on the neuropsychological performance of occupationally exposed workers. Data from eight studies examining 579 exposed and 433 reference participants were included, 28 performance variables analyzed. The performance scores were adjusted for well-known(More)
The review of epidemiological studies investigating the neurobehavioral effects of occupational exposure to solvent mixtures sought to contribute to the following issues: (1) Identification of affected cognitive and motor functions. (2) Identification of sensitive neuropsychological tests. (3) Analysis of exposure-effect relationships. The approach was(More)
Aluminum is a metal with known neurotoxic properties which are linked to encephalopathy and neurodegenerative diseases. The objectives of the current meta-analysis study were: (1) to summarize neurobehavioral data obtained by epidemiological studies in occupational settings and (2) to analyze confounding within these data. The meta-analysis was based on(More)
Two experiments were performed to re-evaluate the sensory irritating properties of 2-ethylhexanol in relation to dose and time and to examine the usability of electromyographic eye blink recordings as indicator of sensory irritation. Mean exposure levels of 1.5, 10 and 20ppm were realized in experimental models simulating either constant or variable 4h(More)
Historically, acute solvent neurotoxicity was strongly related to reversible narcotic states that could be detected by neurobehavioral tests (e.g., simple reaction time). Nowadays, the occupational exposure to chemicals is markedly reduced and the avoidance of chemosensory effects is more important for the regulation of solvents. Exemplarily, this study(More)
OBJECTIVES To ensure safety and health the avoidance of adverse chemosensory effects is essential at workplaces where volatile chemicals are used. The present study describes psychophysical approaches that provide information for the evaluation of such effects. METHODS By means of a modified staircase procedure the odor (OT) and irritation thresholds (IT)(More)
The chemosensory effects of propionic acid (PA) in humans have not been conclusively studied and there is no established occupational exposure limit (OEL) in Germany. In addition to sensory irritation caused by PA, it was hypothesized that the annoying odor of PA might interfere with the performance results. There were 23 consenting healthy participants (12(More)
Chemosensory active volatile organic compounds occur in the breathing air at many workplaces and it has been assumed that they are potent to impair workers' cognitive performance; however, the nature of this relationship is not understood. In the current study we investigated whether the combination of strong chemosensory potency and unpleasant odor valence(More)
OBJECTIVES Though sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is used widely at workplaces, itseffects on humans are not known. Thresholds are reported without reference to gender or age and occupational exposure limits are basedon effects on lung functioning,although localized effects in the upper airways can be expected.This study's aim is to determine thresholds with respect(More)