Michael Santosuosso

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The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 are expressed widely in human cancers, including ovarian cancer, in which they are associated with disease progression at the levels of tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Here, we used an immunocompetent mouse model of intraperitoneal papillary epithelial ovarian cancer to show that modulation(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 clade C (HIV-C) predominates worldwide, and anti-HIV-C vaccines are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses are considered important but have proved difficult to elicit. Although some current immunogens elicit antibodies that neutralize highly neutralization-sensitive (tier 1) HIV strains, most circulating HIVs exhibiting a(More)
Parenterally administered Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine confers only limited immune protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. There is a need for developing effective boosting vaccination strategies. We examined a heterologous prime-boost regimen utilizing BCG as a prime vaccine and our recently described adenoviral vector expressing Ag85A(More)
Staphylococcus aureus remains a common cause of nosocomial bacterial infections and are often antibiotic resistant. The role of NK cells and IL-15 and their relationship in host defense against extracellular bacterial pathogens including S. aureus remain unclear. We have undertaken several approaches to address this issue using wild type (WT), IL-15 gene(More)
We have investigated whether both primary CD8 T cell activation and CD8 T cell-mediated protection from Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge could occur in mycobacterial-vaccinated CD4 T cell-deficient (CD4KO) mice. Different from wild-type C57BL/6 mice, s.c. vaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in CD4KO mice failed to provide protection from(More)
Genetic immunization holds great promise for future vaccination against mucosal infectious diseases. However, parenteral genetic immunization is ineffective in control of mucosal intracellular infections, and the underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. By using a model of parenteral i.m. genetic immunization and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), we have(More)
BACKGROUND Worldwide, approximately 90% of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions occur mucosally; almost all involve R5 strains. Risks of sexual HIV acquisition are highest for rectal, then vaginal, and finally oral exposures. METHODS Mucosal lacerations may affect the rank order of susceptibility to HIV but cannot be assessed in humans. We(More)
In order to increase the immune breadth of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines, strategies such as immunization with several HIV antigens or centralized immunogens have been examined. HIV-1 gp120 protein is a major immunogen of HIV and has been routinely considered for inclusion in both present and future AIDS vaccines. However, recent studies(More)
In vitro manipulated dendritic cells (DC) have increasingly been used as a promising vaccine formulation against cancer and infectious disease. However, improved understanding of the immune mechanisms is needed for the development of safe and efficacious mucosal DC immunization. We have developed a murine model of respiratory mucosal immunization by using a(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 is a pathogen that T cell responses fail to control. HIV-1gp120 is the surface viral envelope glycoprotein that interacts with CD4 T cells and mediates entry. HIV-1gp120 has been implicated in immune dysregulatory functions that may limit anti-HIV antigen-specific T cell responses. We hypothesized that in the context of early SHIV(More)