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The recent approval of a prostate cancer vaccine has renewed hope for anticancer immunotherapies. However, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment may limit the effectiveness of current immunotherapies. Antiangiogenic agents have the potential to modulate the tumor microenvironment and improve immunotherapy, but they often are used at high doses in the(More)
The envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)--glycoprotein 120 (gp120)--has been demonstrated to dysregulate T cell function in vitro. We obtained autopsy tissues from individuals with chronic HIV-1 infection to determine whether there was enough gp120 in lymphoid tissues and/or blood to elicit these effects. We found that gp120 was(More)
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine has failed to control the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, and there is a lack of safe and effective mucosal vaccines capable of potent protection against pulmonary TB. A recombinant replication-deficient adenoviral-based vaccine expressing an immunogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag Ag85A (AdAg85A) was engineered(More)
TNF-alpha has long been regarded as a proimmune cytokine involved in antimicrobial type 1 immunity. However, the precise role of TNF-alpha in antimicrobial type 1 immunity remains poorly understood. We found that TNF-alpha-deficient (TNF(-/-)) mice quickly succumbed to respiratory failure following lung infection with replication-competent mycobacteria,(More)
Parenterally administered Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine confers only limited immune protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. There is a need for developing effective boosting vaccination strategies. We examined a heterologous prime-boost regimen utilizing BCG as a prime vaccine and our recently described adenoviral vector expressing Ag85A(More)
The mechanisms underlying better immune protection by mucosal vaccination have remained poorly understood. In our current study we have investigated the mechanisms by which respiratory virus-mediated mucosal vaccination provides remarkably better immune protection against pulmonary tuberculosis than parenteral vaccination. A recombinant adenovirus-based(More)
The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 are expressed widely in human cancers, including ovarian cancer, in which they are associated with disease progression at the levels of tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Here, we used an immunocompetent mouse model of intraperitoneal papillary epithelial ovarian cancer to show that modulation(More)
Granulocytopenia is thought to be the sole mechanism underlying the increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in hosts with anticancer chemotherapy. Little is known about the functional state of tissue macrophage populations in such hosts. Using a model of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia, the number and function of alveolar macrophages (AMS) were(More)
Staphylococcus aureus remains a common cause of nosocomial bacterial infections and are often antibiotic resistant. The role of NK cells and IL-15 and their relationship in host defense against extracellular bacterial pathogens including S. aureus remain unclear. We have undertaken several approaches to address this issue using wild type (WT), IL-15 gene(More)
We have investigated whether both primary CD8 T cell activation and CD8 T cell-mediated protection from Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge could occur in mycobacterial-vaccinated CD4 T cell-deficient (CD4KO) mice. Different from wild-type C57BL/6 mice, s.c. vaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in CD4KO mice failed to provide protection from(More)