Michael Santosuosso

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Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine has failed to control the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, and there is a lack of safe and effective mucosal vaccines capable of potent protection against pulmonary TB. A recombinant replication-deficient adenoviral-based vaccine expressing an immunogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag Ag85A (AdAg85A) was engineered(More)
Parenterally administered Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine confers only limited immune protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. There is a need for developing effective boosting vaccination strategies. We examined a heterologous prime-boost regimen utilizing BCG as a prime vaccine and our recently described adenoviral vector expressing Ag85A(More)
The recent approval of a prostate cancer vaccine has renewed hope for anticancer immunotherapies. However, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment may limit the effectiveness of current immunotherapies. Antiangiogenic agents have the potential to modulate the tumor microenvironment and improve immunotherapy, but they often are used at high doses in the(More)
The mechanisms underlying better immune protection by mucosal vaccination have remained poorly understood. In our current study we have investigated the mechanisms by which respiratory virus-mediated mucosal vaccination provides remarkably better immune protection against pulmonary tuberculosis than parenteral vaccination. A recombinant adenovirus-based(More)
The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 are expressed widely in human cancers, including ovarian cancer, in which they are associated with disease progression at the levels of tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Here, we used an immunocompetent mouse model of intraperitoneal papillary epithelial ovarian cancer to show that modulation(More)
TNF-alpha has long been regarded as a proimmune cytokine involved in antimicrobial type 1 immunity. However, the precise role of TNF-alpha in antimicrobial type 1 immunity remains poorly understood. We found that TNF-alpha-deficient (TNF(-/-)) mice quickly succumbed to respiratory failure following lung infection with replication-competent mycobacteria,(More)
Genetic immunization holds great promise for future vaccination against mucosal infectious diseases. However, parenteral genetic immunization is ineffective in control of mucosal intracellular infections, and the underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. By using a model of parenteral i.m. genetic immunization and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), we have(More)
BACKGROUND Worldwide, approximately 90% of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions occur mucosally; almost all involve R5 strains. Risks of sexual HIV acquisition are highest for rectal, then vaginal, and finally oral exposures. METHODS Mucosal lacerations may affect the rank order of susceptibility to HIV but cannot be assessed in humans. We(More)
In order to increase the immune breadth of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines, strategies such as immunization with several HIV antigens or centralized immunogens have been examined. HIV-1 gp120 protein is a major immunogen of HIV and has been routinely considered for inclusion in both present and future AIDS vaccines. However, recent studies(More)
IL-12 is believed to play an important role in cell-mediated immunity against intracellular infection primarily by acting on T and NK cells. Recent evidence has suggested, however, that IL-12 has broader cellular targets than previously thought. In this study, we examined the role of IL-12 in macrophage TNF-alpha and nitric oxide (NO) release by using an in(More)