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BACKGROUND Improved understanding of prostate cancer radiobiology combined with advances in delivery of radiation to the moving prostate offer the potential to reduce treatment-related morbidity and maintain quality of life (QOL) following prostate cancer treatment. We present preliminary results following stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment for(More)
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) boost following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for advanced localized prostate cancer may reduce toxicity while escalating the dose. We present preliminary biochemical control and urinary, rectal and sexual toxicities for 73 patients treated with SBRT as a boost to EBRT. Forty-one intermediate- and 32 high-risk(More)
BACKGROUND Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) may yield disease control for prostate cancer in a brief, hypofractionated treatment regimen without increasing treatment toxicity. Our report presents a 6-year update from 304 low- (n = 211), intermediate- (n = 81), and high-risk (n = 12) prostate cancer patients who received CyberKnife SBRT. METHODS The(More)
Contradictory goals plague China's pharmaceutical policy. The government wants to develop the domestic pharmaceutical industry and has used drug pricing to cross-subsidize public hospitals. Yet the government also aims to control drug spending through price caps and profit-margin regulations to guarantee access even for poor patients. The resulting system(More)
This study examines the efficacy and toxicity of two stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) dose regimens for treatment of early prostate cancer. Forty-one patients treated with 35 Gy were matched with 41 patients treated with 36.25 Gy. Both patient groups received SBRT in five fractions over five consecutive days using the CyberKnife. Each group had 37(More)
The cost of drugs is a major and rapidly rising component of health-care expenditures. We survey recent literature on the ethics and economics of skyrocketing pharmaceutical prices and find that advances in economic research have increased the sharpness and focus of the ethically based calls to increase access by modifying patent protection and reducing(More)
This paper presents a misalignment correction method for reducing depth errors that result from camera shift. The proposed method uses a real-time motion estimation approach to correct for alignment errors between stereo cameras. Unlike existing methods in the literature, the natural disparity between stereo views is incorporated into a constrained motion(More)
This paper presents a block-overlap-based validity metric in the context of hybrid de-interlacing. The proposed metric uses the degree of motion-compensated block overlap as a measure of motion vector (MV) validity. In contrast to other validity methods in the literature, the proposed method is not sensitive to image features and does not require the use of(More)
Since motion estimation via block matching is an ill-posed problem, it requires the use of smoothness constraints to regularize the motion field. The block matching error and smoothness constraints together form an energy expression to be minimized. Motion vectors (MVs) from a candidate set are used to determine which MV minimizes the overall energy. These(More)
This paper discusses the present hazardous waste program of 3M Company (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company). 3M's definition of hazardous waste and the company's position on hazardous waste disposal are first considered. The company position is that wherever and whenever the disposal of a waste material threatens the environment or public safety,(More)