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In experimental animals, systemic administration of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors causes large increases in blood pressure that are in part sympathetically mediated. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which these conclusions can be extrapolated to humans. In healthy normotensive humans, we measured blood pressure in response to(More)
INTRODUCTION Cardiac output (CO) monitoring is indicated only in selected patients. In cardiac surgical patients, perioperative haemodynamic management is often guided by CO measurement by pulmonary artery catheterisation (COPAC). Alternative strategies of CO determination have become increasingly accepted in clinical practice because the benefit of guiding(More)
INTRODUCTION Antifibrinolytic agents are commonly used during cardiac surgery to minimize bleeding. Because of safety concerns, aprotinin was withdrawn from the market in 2007. Since then, tranexamic acid (TXA) has become the antifibrinolytic treatment of choice in many heart centers. The safety profile of TXA has not been extensively studied. Therefore,(More)
BACKGROUND Fluid challenges (FCs) are one of the most commonly used therapies in critically ill patients and represent the cornerstone of hemodynamic management in intensive care units. There are clear benefits and harms from fluid therapy. Limited data on the indication, type, amount and rate of an FC in critically ill patients exist in the literature. The(More)
Acute cardiovascular dysfunction occurs perioperatively in more than 20% of cardiosurgical patients, yet current acute heart failure (HF) classification is not applicable to this period. Indicators of major perioperative risk include unstable coronary syndromes, decompensated HF, significant arrhythmias and valvular disease. Clinical risk factors include(More)
Rationale: Postoperative pneumonia is 3-to 4-times more frequent in patients with alcohol use disorders followed by prolonged ICU stay. Long-term alcohol use leads to an altered perioperative HPA axis and immunity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA intervention with low-dose ethanol, morphine, or ketoconazole on the neuroendocrine-immune(More)
INTRODUCTION Monitoring of the cardiac output by continuous arterial pulse contour (COPiCCOpulse) analysis is a clinically validated procedure proved to be an alternative to the pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution cardiac output (COPACtherm) in cardiac surgical patients. There is ongoing debate, however, of whether the COPiCCOpulse is accurate after(More)
The administration of a fluid bolus is done frequently in the perioperative period to increase the cardiac output. Yet fluid loading fails to increase the cardiac output in more than 50% of critically ill and surgical patients. The assessment of fluid responsiveness (the slope of the left ventricular function curve) prior to fluid administration may thus(More)
conducted the Manna project, which aimed to design and develop a scalable distributed-memory parallel computer to support the execution of parallel numerical and nonnumerical applications. The Peace operating system served as the starting point for implementing a system-software platform for Manna. 1 Based on previous experiences with the 320-node Suprenum(More)
INTRODUCTION Adequate fluid loading is the first step of hemodynamic optimization in cardiac patients undergoing surgery. Neither a clinical approach alone nor conventional parameters like central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) are thought to be sufficient for recognizing fluid deficiency or overload. The aim of this(More)