Michael Sakalian

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The pleomorphic nature of the immature and mature HIV-1 virions has made it difficult to characterize intersubunit interactions using traditional approaches. While the structures of isolated domains are known, the challenge is to identify intersubunit interactions and thereby pack these domains into supramolecular structures. Using high-resolution mass(More)
Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have both serologic and tissue evidence of infection. A recently identified human betaretrovirus was originally cloned from the biliary epithelium cDNA library of a patient with PBC. By conducting a BLASTN search, the initial partial pol gene fragment was found to have 95% to 97% nucleotide homology with mouse(More)
Bevirimat, the prototype Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation inhibitor, is highly potent in cell culture and efficacious in HIV-1 infected patients. In contrast to inhibitors that target the active site of the viral protease, bevirimat specifically inhibits a single cleavage event, the final processing step for the Gag precursor where p25(More)
The association of human breast cancer with sequences similar to the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) has been shown, but convincing evidence for the presence of viral particles in breast tumors has been lacking. We have described the complete proviral structure of a retrovirus in human breast cancer. This provirus, designated as human mammary tumor virus(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid protein (CA) plays a crucial role in both assembly and maturation of the virion. Numerous recent studies have focused on either the soluble form of CA or the polymer end product of in vitro CA assembly. The CA polymer, in particular, has been used to study CA-CA interactions because it is a good model(More)
Animal models that closely mimic the human condition are of paramount significance to study pathogenic mechanisms, vaccine and therapy scenarios. This is particularly true for investigations that involve emerging infectious diseases. Nonhuman primate species represent an alternative to the more intensively investigated rodent animal models and in a number(More)
The current standard of care for HIV/AIDS in the developed world is HAART therapy, usually a combination of two reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a protease inhibitor. Despite the success of this regimen, there is a continuing need for new drug options to overcome problems with tolerability and the emergence of viral resistance. In this review we discuss(More)
3-O-(3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl)betulinic acid (PA-457 or bevirimat) potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation by blocking a late step in the Gag processing pathway, specifically the cleavage of SP1 from the C terminus of capsid (CA). To gain insights into the mechanism(s) by which HIV-1 could evolve resistance to PA-457 and to(More)
The maturation inhibitor bevirimat (BVM) potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by blocking capsid-spacer peptide 1 (CA-SP1) cleavage. Recent clinical trials demonstrated that a significant proportion of HIV-1-infected patients do not respond to BVM. A patient's failure to respond correlated with baseline polymorphisms at(More)
Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), the prototypical type D retrovirus, assembles immature capsids within the cytoplasm of the cell prior to plasma membrane interaction. Several mutants of M-PMV Gag have been described which display altered transport, assembly, or both. In this report, we describe the use of an in vitro synthesis and assembly system to(More)