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The association of human breast cancer with sequences similar to the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) has been shown, but convincing evidence for the presence of viral particles in breast tumors has been lacking. We have described the complete proviral structure of a retrovirus in human breast cancer. This provirus, designated as human mammary tumor virus(More)
The pleomorphic nature of the immature and mature HIV-1 virions has made it difficult to characterize intersubunit interactions using traditional approaches. While the structures of isolated domains are known, the challenge is to identify intersubunit interactions and thereby pack these domains into supramolecular structures. Using high-resolution mass(More)
Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have both serologic and tissue evidence of infection. A recently identified human betaretrovirus was originally cloned from the biliary epithelium cDNA library of a patient with PBC. By conducting a BLASTN search, the initial partial pol gene fragment was found to have 95% to 97% nucleotide homology with mouse(More)
Bevirimat, the prototype Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation inhibitor, is highly potent in cell culture and efficacious in HIV-1 infected patients. In contrast to inhibitors that target the active site of the viral protease, bevirimat specifically inhibits a single cleavage event, the final processing step for the Gag precursor where p25(More)
The assembly of retroviral particles is mediated by the product of the gag gene; no other retroviral gene products are necessary for this process. While most retroviruses assemble their capsids at the plasma membrane, viruses of the type D class preassemble immature capsids within the cytoplasm of infected cells. This has allowed us to determine whether(More)
Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), the prototypical type D retrovirus, assembles immature capsids within the cytoplasm of the cell prior to plasma membrane interaction. Several mutants of M-PMV Gag have been described which display altered transport, assembly, or both. In this report, we describe the use of an in vitro synthesis and assembly system to(More)
Gag polyprotein precursors play an essential role in the assembly of the HIV particle by polymerizing into a spherical shell at the plasma membrane. In order to define the domains within Gag responsible for this homotypic interaction, we have coupled the technology of the yeast two-hybrid system with the technology of a gene-based, semirandom library. By(More)
To characterize the intersubunit interactions underlying assembly and maturation in HIV-1, we determined the amide hydrogen exchange protection pattern of capsid protein in the immature virion and the mature virion using mass spectrometry. Alterations in protection upon maturation provide evidence for the maturation-induced formation of an interaction(More)
The current standard of care for HIV/AIDS in the developed world is HAART therapy, usually a combination of two reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a protease inhibitor. Despite the success of this regimen, there is a continuing need for new drug options to overcome problems with tolerability and the emergence of viral resistance. In this review we discuss(More)
3-O-(3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl)betulinic acid (PA-457 or bevirimat) potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation by blocking a late step in the Gag processing pathway, specifically the cleavage of SP1 from the C terminus of capsid (CA). To gain insights into the mechanism(s) by which HIV-1 could evolve resistance to PA-457 and to(More)