Michael S. Shapiro

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The identification of the neutralization domains of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is essential for the development of an effective vaccine. Here, we show that the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the envelope 2 (E2) protein is a critical neutralization domain of HCV. Neutralization of HCV in vitro was attempted with a rabbit hyperimmune serum raised against a(More)
Viral clearance during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been thought to reflect the destruction of infected hepatocytes by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. However, in this study, HBV DNA was shown to largely disappear from the liver and the blood of acutely infected chimpanzees long before the peak of T cell infiltration and most of the liver disease. These(More)
Prior to the recent discovery of the swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV) in pigs from the midwestern United States, HEV was not considered endemic to this country. Since swine HEV is antigenically and genetically related to human strains of HEV, it was important to characterize this new virus further. The infectivity titer of a pool of swine HEV in pigs was(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most important etiologic agent of non-A, non-B hepatitis and is a major cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Development of an effective vaccine would be the most practical method for prevention of the infection, but whether infection with HCV elicits protective immunity in the host is unclear.(More)
Data related to risk factors for catheter-acquired bacteriuria were collected prospectively on 112 patients consecutively catheterized for greater than 24 hours at the Hadassah University Hospital. Logistic regression analysis indicated that factors independently associated (p less than or equal to 0.05) with a higher risk of catheter-acquired bacteriuria(More)
Virtually full protection against hepatitis E and partial or complete protection against infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) were achieved in passively or actively immunized cynomolgus monkeys. Hepatitis, viremia, and shedding of the virus in feces were detected in all nonimmunized animals that were challenged with HEV. HEV titers detected by reverse(More)
We constructed a chimeric cDNA clone of hepatitis C virus (HCV) that is infectious. The chimeric genome encodes the polyprotein of a genotype 1b strain (HC-J4) of HCV and replicates via 5' and 3' untranslated regions of a genotype 1a strain. The infectivity of three full-length cDNA clones was tested by direct injection of RNA transcripts into the liver of(More)
Trichosporon asahii (Trichosporon beigelii) infections are rare but have been associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from superficial involvement in immunocompetent individuals to severe systemic disease in immunocompromised patients. We report on the recent recovery of T. asahii isolates with reduced susceptibility in vitro to(More)
Thirty-two rhesus monkeys were used to evaluate the dose response of a recombinant HEV vaccine, and the efficacy of the vaccine based on the ORF2 protein of the Pakistani strain for pre- and post-exposure vaccination against intravenous challenge with homologous or heterologous virus was examined. Post-exposure vaccination did not protect animals against(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the demographic and clinical variables characteristic of non-epidemic intrapartum or puerperal group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. METHODS The records of 47 patients diagnosed with intrapartum or puerperal GAS infection over a 6 1/2 year period at Hadassah-University Hospital-Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem were reviewed. Data regarding(More)