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Caspases are essential components of the mammalian cell death machinery. Here we test the hypothesis that Caspase 9 (Casp9) is a critical upstream activator of caspases through gene targeting in mice. The majority of Casp9 knockout mice die perinatally with a markedly enlarged and malformed cerebrum caused by reduced apoptosis during brain development.(More)
Bouma's law of crowding predicts an uncrowded central window through which we can read and a crowded periphery through which we cannot. The old discovery that readers make several fixations per second, rather than a continuous sweep across the text, suggests that reading is limited by the number of letters that can be acquired in one fixation, without(More)
The Aurora kinases are essential for the regulation of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis during mitosis. Aberrant expression and activity of these kinases occur in a wide range of human tumors, and lead to aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. Here we report the discovery of a highly potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora kinases, VX-680, that(More)
We propose an integrative cognitive neuroscience framework for understanding the cognitive and neural foundations of religious belief. Our analysis reveals 3 psychological dimensions of religious belief (God's perceived level of involvement, God's perceived emotion, and doctrinal/experiential religious knowledge), which functional MRI localizes within(More)
How does infarction in victims of stroke and other types of acute brain injury expand to its definitive size in subsequent days? Spontaneous depolarizations that repeatedly spread across the cerebral cortex, sometimes at remarkably regular intervals, occur in patients with all types of injury. Here, we show experimentally with in vivo real-time imaging that(More)
Recent publications, all involving native speakers of English, have established that lesions in the right cerebral hemisphere produce a deficit in the comprehension and execution of tonal change in language related to the affective component of prosody. We tested 12 Chinese patients with right-hemisphere lesions and seven controls for comprehension,(More)
BACKGROUND The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, and regulate signal transduction in response to environmental stress. Activation and nuclear localization of JNK3, a neuronal-specific isoform of JNK, has been associated with hypoxic and ischemic damage of CA1 neurons in the hippocampus.(More)
BACKGROUND Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) has been overshadowed by the more common late-onset AD (LOAD). Yet, the literature indicates EOAD may have less hippocampal-memory presentations and more focal neocortical localization early in the disease. OBJECTIVE To evaluate these proposed differences between these 2 forms of AD and to explore what(More)
VINCI (" Volume Imaging in Neurological Research, Co-Registration and ROIs included ") was designed for the visualization and analysis of volume data generated by medical tomographical systems with special emphasis on the needs for brain imaging with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). VINCI is highly modular, extensible, compact and runs well on current(More)
We hypothesized that religiosity, a set of traits variably expressed in the population, is modulated by neuroanatomical variability. We tested this idea by determining whether aspects of religiosity were predicted by variability in regional cortical volume. We performed structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in 40 healthy adult participants who(More)