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We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between(More)
With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
Heterozygous mutations in FOXP2, which encodes a forkhead transcription factor, have been shown to cause developmental verbal dyspraxia and language impairment. FOXP2 and its closest homolog, FOXP1, are coexpressed in brain regions that are important for language and cooperatively regulate developmental processes, raising the possibility that FOXP1 may also(More)
The DNase I binding loop (residues 38-52), the hydrophobic plug (residues 262-274), and the C terminus region are among the structural elements of monomeric (G-) actin proposed to form the intermonomer interface in F-actin. To test the proximity and interactions of these elements and to provide constraints on models of F-actin structure, cysteine residues(More)
A biosonar measurement tool (BMT) was created to investigate dolphin echolocation search strategies by recording echolocation clicks, returning echoes, and three-dimensional angular motion, velocity, and depth of free-swimming dolphins performing open-water target detections. Trial start and stop times, locations determined from a differential global(More)
Using an empirical panel of more than 20 000 single base primer extension (SNP-IT) assays we have developed a set of statistical scores for evaluating and rank ordering various parameters of the SNP-IT reaction to facilitate high-throughput assay primer design with improved likelihood of success. Each score predicts either signal magnitude from primer(More)
Just-noticeable differences (jnds) of both interaural time delay (ITD) and interaural intensity difference (IID) were measured for binaural tones in the presence of broadband maskers. The tones were presented at 50 dB SPL, the target frequency was 500 Hz, and the masker frequency was 100-1000 Hz, with various combinations of ITD and IID. The time and(More)
MOTIVATION The optimization of the primer design is critical for the development of high-throughput SNP genotyping methods. Recently developed statistical models of the SNP-IT primer extension genotyping reaction allow further improvement of primer quality for the assay. RESULTS Here we describe how the statistical models can be used to improve primer(More)
Dolphins within the Navy Marine Mammal Program use echolocation to effectively locate underwater mines. They currently outperform manmade systems at similar tasks, particularly in cluttered environments and on buried targets. In hopes of improving manmade mine-hunting sonar systems, two instrumentation packages were developed to monitor free-swimming(More)
The Mobius ® CellReady bioreactor product platform incorporates novel disposable technologies that provide optimal performance for suspension mammalian cell culture. Here we show the utility of EMD Millipore's 3L and 50L CellReady single use bioreactors for the cultivation of adherent mammalian cells on microcarriers. Cytodex 3® and Solohill ® collagen(More)