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To clarify the mechanism underlying improvement of parkinsonian signs by high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), we investigated the effects of STN HFS on neuronal activity of the internal and external segment of the globus pallidus (GPi and GPe, respectively) in two rhesus monkeys rendered parkinsonian by(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior limb of the internal capsule has been shown to be beneficial in the short term for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients who exhaust conventional therapies. Nuttin et al, who published the first DBS for OCD series, found promising results using a capsule target immediately rostral to the anterior(More)
We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,713 individuals of European ancestry with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 3,978 controls. After replication in 3,361 cases and 4,573 controls, we observed two strong association signals, one in the gene encoding alpha-synuclein (SNCA; rs2736990, OR = 1.23, P = 2.24 x 10(-16)) and another at the MAPT(More)
Psychiatric neurosurgery teams in the United States and Europe have studied deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum (VC/VS) for severe and highly treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Four groups have collaborated most closely, in small-scale studies, over the past 8 years.(More)
BACKGROUND Several genes underlying rare monogenic forms of Parkinson's disease have been identified over the past decade. Despite evidence for a role for genetics in sporadic Parkinson's disease, few common genetic variants have been unequivocally linked to this disorder. We sought to identify any common genetic variability exerting a large effect in risk(More)
BACKGROUND Prior promising results have been reported with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior limb of the internal capsule in cases with severe obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) who had exhausted conventional therapies. METHODS In this pilot study, six adult patients (2 male; 4 female) meeting stringent criteria for severe (minimum Yale-Brown(More)
It is well-established that during goal-directed motor tasks, patients with essential tremor have increased oscillations in the 0-3 and 3-8 Hz bands. It remains unclear if these increased oscillations relate to activity in specific brain regions. This study used task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare the brain activity associated with(More)
OBJECTIVE Our aim was to compare in a prospective blinded study the cognitive and mood effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) vs. globus pallidus interna (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease. METHODS Fifty-two subjects were randomized to unilateral STN or GPi DBS. The co-primary outcome measures were the Visual Analog Mood Scale, and(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of constant-current deep brain stimulation (DBS) have not been studied in controlled trials in patients with Parkinson's disease. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of bilateral constant-current DBS of the subthalamic nucleus. METHODS This prospective, randomised, multicentre controlled trial was done between Sept 26, 2005,(More)
Conflicting research suggests that deep brain stimulation surgery, an effective treatment for medication-refractory Parkinson's disease (PD), may lead to selective cognitive declines. We compared cognitive performance of 22 PD patients who underwent unilateral DBS to the GPi or STN to that of 19 PD controls at baseline and 12 months. We hypothesized that(More)