Michael S. Kramer

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  • M S Kramer
  • Bulletin of the World Health Organization
  • 1987
43 determinants of low birth weight were analyzed from 895 published papers in the English and French literature from 1970-1984. The assessment was limited to singleton births of women living at sea level with no chronic illness; rare factors and complications of pregnancy were excluded. The 43 factors were categorized as genetic and constitutional,(More)
BACKGROUND Existing fetal growth references all suffer from 1 or more major methodologic problems, including errors in reported gestational age, biologically implausible birth weight for gestational age, insufficient sample sizes at low gestational age, single-hospital or other non-population-based samples, and inadequate statistical modeling techniques. (More)
Six-month prevalence rates for selected DSM-III psychiatric disorders are reported based on community surveys in New Haven, Conn, Baltimore, and St Louis. As part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area program, data were gathered on more than 9,000 adults, employing the Diagnostic Interview Schedule to collect information to make a diagnosis. The most common(More)
One-month prevalence results were determined from 18,571 persons interviewed in the first-wave community samples of all five sites that constituted the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. US population estimates, based on combined site data, were that 15.4% of the population 18 years of age and over fulfilled criteria(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity before pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of several adverse outcomes of pregnancy. The risk profiles among lean, normal, or mildly overweight women are not, however, well established. METHODS We studied the associations between prepregnancy body-mass index (defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the(More)
CONTEXT Current evidence that breastfeeding is beneficial for infant and child health is based exclusively on observational studies. Potential sources of bias in such studies have led to doubts about the magnitude of these health benefits in industrialized countries. OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of breastfeeding promotion on breastfeeding duration and(More)
The associations between the one-month prevalence rates of mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics were investigated for 18,571 people interviewed in the first-wave community samples of all 5 sites in the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Epidemiologic Catchment Area program. Men were found to have a significantly higher rate of(More)
The National Institute of Mental Health multisite Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) program is described in the context of four previous psychiatric epidemiologic surveys that included a combined total of 4,000 subjects from Stirling County, the Baltimore Morbidity Study, Midtown Manhattan, and the New Haven third-wave survey. The ECA program is(More)
In this paper, we review the evidence bearing on socio-economic disparities in pregnancy outcome, focusing on aetiological factors mediating the disparities in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth. We first summarise what is known about the attributable determinants of IUGR and preterm birth, emphasising their quantitative contributions(More)