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We investigated the forces that connect the genetic program of development to morphogenesis in Drosophila. We focused on dorsal closure, a powerful model system for development and wound healing. We found that the bulk of progress toward closure is driven by contractility in supracellular "purse strings" and in the amnioserosa, whereas adhesion-mediated(More)
We use laser hole drilling to assess the mechanics of an embryonic epithelium during development-in vivo and with subcellular resolution. We ablate a subcellular cylindrical hole clean through the epithelium and track the subsequent recoil of adjacent cells (on ms time scales). We investigate dorsal closure in the fruit fly with emphasis on apical(More)
Tissue dynamics during dorsal closure, a stage of Drosophila development, provide a model system for cell sheet morphogenesis and wound healing. Dorsal closure is characterized by complex cell sheet movements, driven by multiple tissue specific forces, which are coordinated in space, synchronized in time, and resilient to UV-laser perturbations. The(More)
Mechanical forces play a key role in a wide range of biological processes, from embryogenesis to cancer metastasis, and there is considerable interest in the intuitive question, "Can cellular forces be inferred from cell shapes?" Although several groups have posited affirmative answers to this stimulating question, nagging issues remained regarding equation(More)
Holographic laser microsurgery is used to isolate single amnioserosa cells in vivo during early dorsal closure. During this stage of Drosophila embryogenesis, amnioserosa cells undergo oscillations in apical surface area. The postisolation behavior of individual cells depends on their preisolation phase in these contraction/expansion cycles: cells that were(More)
Despite being a short-lived, extraembryonic tissue, the amnioserosa plays critical roles in the major morphogenetic events of Drosophila embryogenesis. These roles involve both cellular mechanics and biochemical signaling. Its best-known role is in dorsal closure-well studied by both developmental biologists and biophysicists-but the amnioserosa is also(More)
The absence of tools for mapping the forces that drive morphogenetic movements in embryos has impeded our understanding of animal development. Here we describe a unique approach, video force microscopy (VFM), that allows detailed, dynamic force maps to be produced from time-lapse images. The forces at work in an embryo are considered to be decomposed into(More)
Life scripts are culturally shared expectations about the order and timing of life events in a prototypical life course. American and Danish undergraduates produced life story events and life scripts by listing the seven most important events in their own lives and in the lives of hypothetical people living ordinary lives. They also rated their events on(More)
How eyewitnesses talk about events 2 Abstract Eyewitnesses to traumatic events typically talk about them, and they may do so for different reasons. Of interest was whether qualitatively different retellings would lead to quantitative differences in later memory. All subjects watched a violent film scene; 1/3 talked about their emotional reactions to the(More)
Coordination of apical constriction in epithelial sheets is a fundamental process during embryogenesis. Here, we show that DRhoGEF2 is a key regulator of apical pulsation and constriction of amnioserosal cells during Drosophila dorsal closure. Amnioserosal cells mutant for DRhoGEF2 exhibit a consistent decrease in amnioserosa pulsations whereas(More)