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We investigated the forces that connect the genetic program of development to morphogenesis in Drosophila. We focused on dorsal closure, a powerful model system for development and wound healing. We found that the bulk of progress toward closure is driven by contractility in supracellular "purse strings" and in the amnioserosa, whereas adhesion-mediated(More)
We use laser hole drilling to assess the mechanics of an embryonic epithelium during development-in vivo and with subcellular resolution. We ablate a subcellular cylindrical hole clean through the epithelium and track the subsequent recoil of adjacent cells (on ms time scales). We investigate dorsal closure in the fruit fly with emphasis on apical(More)
To study the process of morphogenesis, one often needs to collect and segment time-lapse images of living tissues to accurately track changing cellular morphology. This task typically involves segmenting and tracking tens to hundreds of individual cells over hundreds of image frames, a scale that would certainly benefit from automated routines; however, any(More)
Tissue dynamics during dorsal closure, a stage of Drosophila development, provide a model system for cell sheet morphogenesis and wound healing. Dorsal closure is characterized by complex cell sheet movements, driven by multiple tissue specific forces, which are coordinated in space, synchronized in time, and resilient to UV-laser perturbations. The(More)
The absence of tools for mapping the forces that drive morphogenetic movements in embryos has impeded our understanding of animal development. Here we describe a unique approach, video force microscopy (VFM), that allows detailed, dynamic force maps to be produced from time-lapse images. The forces at work in an embryo are considered to be decomposed into(More)
Mechanical forces play a key role in a wide range of biological processes, from embryogenesis to cancer metastasis, and there is considerable interest in the intuitive question, "Can cellular forces be inferred from cell shapes?" Although several groups have posited affirmative answers to this stimulating question, nagging issues remained regarding equation(More)
We compare the plasma and cavitation dynamics underlying pulsed laser microsurgery in water and in fruit fly embryos (in vivo)--specifically for nanosecond pulses at 355 and 532 nm. We find two key differences. First, the plasma-formation thresholds are lower in vivo--especially at 355 nm--due to the presence of endogenous chromophores that serve as(More)
Defective mineralization of bone and cartilage is the classical histological finding in vitamin D deficiency. Whether this represents a direct effect on mineral deposition or is a consequence of the decreased calcium and phosphorus levels that result from impaired intestinal absorption is not clear. A method has been developed in which vitamin D-deficient(More)
Laser microsurgery and finite element modeling are used to determine the cell-level mechanics of the amnioserosa-a morphogenetically crucial epithelium on the dorsal surface of fruit fly embryos (Drosophila melanogaster). In the experiments, a tightly focused laser ablates a subcellular hole (1 microm in diameter) that passes clean through the epithelium.(More)
Resistance to fracture depends not only on the total amount of trabecular bone but also on the size and distribution of the trabeculae. We used an image analysis computer to make direct measurements of trabecular width and separation in 33 normal subjects, aged 20 to 80 years. Multiple regression analysis showed that an increase in the distance between(More)