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The British Thoracic Society first published management guidelines for community acquired pneumonia in children in 2002 and covered available evidence to early 2000. These updated guidelines represent a review of new evidence since then and consensus clinical opinion where evidence was not found. This document incorporates material from the 2002 guidelines(More)
Ribosome profiling suggests that ribosomes occupy many regions of the transcriptome thought to be noncoding, including 5' UTRs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Apparent ribosome footprints outside of protein-coding regions raise the possibility of artifacts unrelated to translation, particularly when they occupy multiple, overlapping open reading frames(More)
PURPOSE Verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single end point outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of development of(More)
Intracellular proteins with long lifespans have recently been linked to age-dependent defects, ranging from decreased fertility to the functional decline of neurons. Why long-lived proteins exist in metabolically active cellular environments and how they are maintained over time remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a system-wide identification of(More)
Previous studies in vivo have suggested that distention of the intestinal lumen may enhance intestinal absorption by augmenting absorptive surface area. The precise anatomic mechanism for this increase in surface area, however, has not been explored in detail. We developed methods for rapidly freezing and fixing intestinal segments in situ in the(More)
OBJECTIVES Cochlear implants (CIs) help many deaf children achieve near-normal speech and language (S/L) milestones. Nevertheless, high levels of unexplained variability in S/L outcomes are limiting factors in improving the effectiveness of CIs in deaf children. The objective of this study was to longitudinally assess the role of verbal short-term memory(More)
BACKGROUND The use of topical therapy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis has declined in recent years despite evidence of good efficacy. AIMS To review US prescription trends for 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) since the US approval of Asacol extended-release oral mesalazine (mesalamine) in 1992; to estimate the optimal level of 5-ASA exposure in the(More)
Studies in intact animals have shown that intestinal solute absorption may be enhanced with increasing intraluminal volume and flow rate, perhaps because of increases in functional absorptive surface area or perturbation of unstirred layers. We used single-pass perfusions of rat ileum, performed by simultaneously infusing and withdrawing at equal rates, to(More)
Surgical therapy of functional outlet obstruction in patients with internal rectal intussusception may include abdominal, perineal, or transrectal procedures. Because abdominal procedures often result in significant physiologic impact but unrelieved constipation, the authors have elected Delorme's transrectal excision for management of these patients. Since(More)
OBJECTIVES The relationship between symptom improvement (SI) and acceleration of gastric emptying (GE) for different drugs used in the treatment of idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis is uncertain. In this paper we examined the study-specific correlations between SI and GE, and we performed a meta-regression analysis of the association across multiple(More)