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Hypothalamic neurons that co-express agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are known to promote feeding and weight gain by integration of various nutritional, hormonal, and neuronal signals. Ablation of these neurons in mice leads to cessation of feeding that is accompanied by activation of Fos in most regions where(More)
Insulin-induced increases in blood flow are hypothesized to enhance overall glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. Whether the insulin-mediated changes in blood flow are associated with altered blood flow distribution and increased capillary recruitment in skeletal muscle is not known. In the present study, the effects of insulin on hemodynamic parameters in(More)
Insulin increases glucose disposal into muscle. In addition, in vivo insulin elicits distinct nitric oxide synthase-dependent vascular responses to increase total skeletal muscle blood flow and to recruit muscle capillaries (by relaxing resistance and terminal arterioles, respectively). In the current study, we compared the temporal sequence of vascular and(More)
The vascular actions of insulin may contribute to the increase in glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. We have recently shown that when capillary recruitment by insulin is blocked in vivo, an acute state of insulin resistance is induced. Another agent that may have vascular effects is the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which(More)
We have reported that insulin exerts two vascular actions in muscle; it both increases blood flow and recruits capillaries. In parallel hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies, we compared the insulin dose response of muscle microvascular recruitment and femoral blood flow as well as hindleg glucose uptake in fed, hooded Wistar and fasted Sprague-Dawley(More)
Infusion of triglycerides and heparin causes insulin resistance in muscle. Because the vascular actions of insulin, particularly capillary recruitment, may contribute to the increase in glucose uptake by skeletal muscle, we investigated the effects of Intralipid/heparin infusion on the hemodynamic actions of insulin during clamp conditions. Saline or 10%(More)
Insulin-mediated changes in blood flow are associated with altered blood flow distribution and increased capillary recruitment in skeletal muscle. Studies in perfused rat hindlimb have shown that muscle metabolism can be regulated by vasoactive agents that control blood flow distribution within the hindlimb. In the present study, the effects of a(More)
We examined the effects of inhibiting nitric oxide synthase with Nomega-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (l-NAME) on total hindlimb blood flow, muscle microvascular recruitment, and hindlimb glucose uptake during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia in vivo in the rat. We used two independent methods to measure microvascular perfusion. In one group of animals,(More)
Supraphysiological doses of insulin enhance total limb blood flow and recruit capillaries in skeletal muscle. Whether these processes change in response to physiological hyperinsulinemia is uncertain. To examine this, we infused either saline (n = 6) or insulin (euglycemic clamp, 3.0 mU x min(-1) x kg(-1), n = 9) into anesthetized rats for 120 min. Femoral(More)