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PURPOSE In this article, the authors present a tutorial on the use of developmental trajectories for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders and compare this method with the use of matching. METHOD The authors assess the strengths, limitations, and practical implications of each method. The contrast between the methodologies(More)
It is often assumed that similar domain-specific behavioural impairments found in cases of adult brain damage and developmental disorders correspond to similar underlying causes, and can serve as convergent evidence for the modular structure of the normal adult cognitive system. We argue that this correspondence is contingent on an unsupported assumption(More)
Contemporary models of the neural system that supports reading propose that activity in a ventral occipitotemporal area (vOT) drives activity in higher-order language areas, for example, those in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and anterior superior temporal sulcus (aSTS). We used fMRI with dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate evidence(More)
An increasing number of connectionist models have been proposed to explain behavioral deficits in developmental disorders. These simulations motivate serious consideration of the theoretical implications of the claim that a developmental disorder fits within the parameter space of a particular computational model of normal development. The authors examine(More)
We measured 1 changes in intelligence quotient (IQ) between time 1 and time 2 in teenage subjects and searched their brains for regions where changes in IQ predicted changes in grey matter density (GMD). We found highly significant effects in two localized brain regions, after correcting for multiple comparisons across the whole brain. This provided an(More)
Our objective was to demonstrate that human population-level, right-handedness, is not species specific, precipitated from language areas in the brain, but rather is context specific and inherited from a behavior common to both humans and great apes. In general, previous methods of assessing human handedness have neglected to consider the context of action,(More)
BACKGROUND Face processing in Williams syndrome (WS) has been a topic of heated debate over the past decade. Initial claims about a normally developing ('intact') face-processing module were challenged by data suggesting that individuals with WS used a different balance of cognitive processes from controls, even when their behavioural scores fell within the(More)
Williams Syndrome (WS) is marked by a relative strength in verbal cognition coupled with a serious impairment in non-verbal cognition. A strong deficit in numerical cognition has been anecdotally reported in this disorder; however, its nature has not been systematically investigated. Here, we tested 14 children with WS (mean age=7 years 2 months), 14(More)