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Behavioral assessment after spinal cord contusion has long focused on open field locomotion using modifications of a rating scale developed by Tarlov and Klinger (1954). However, on-going modifications by several groups have made interlaboratory comparison of locomotor outcome measures difficult. The purpose of the present study was to develop an efficient,(More)
Injury reproducibility is an important characteristic of experimental models of spinal cord injuries (SCI) because it limits the variability in locomotor and anatomical outcome measures. Recently, a more sensitive locomotor rating scale, the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scale (BBB), was developed but had not been tested on rats with severe SCI complete(More)
Activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy in the brain contributes to neural circuit development and experience-dependent plasticity. Although glia are affected by activity and ensheathe synapses, their influence on synaptic strength has largely been ignored. Here, we show that a protein produced by glia, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha),(More)
Apoptosis is a morphologically defined form of programmed cell death seen in a variety of circumstances, including immune cell selection, carcinogenesis and development. Apoptosis has very recently been seen after ischemic or traumatic injury to the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting that active cell death as well as passive necrosis may mediate(More)
Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, is implicated in both normal neurotransmission and excitotoxicity. Numerous in vitro findings indicate that the ionotropic glutamate receptor, AMPAR, can rapidly traffic from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane, altering neuronal excitability. These receptor trafficking events are thought(More)
Changes in sensory function including chronic pain and allodynia are common sequelae of spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. The present study documents the extent and time course of mechanical allodynia and cold hyperalgesia after contusion SCI in the rat using stimulation with graded von Frey filaments (4.97-50.45 g force) and ice probes. Fore- and(More)
The neurotrophin receptor p75 is induced by various injuries to the nervous system, but its role after injury has remained unclear. Here, we report that p75 is required for the death of oligodendrocytes following spinal cord injury, and its action is mediated mainly by proNGF. Oligodendrocytes undergoing apoptosis expressed p75, and the absence of p75(More)
Although axonal regeneration after CNS injury is limited, partial injury is frequently accompanied by extensive functional recovery. To investigate mechanisms underlying spontaneous recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury, we administered C7 spinal cord hemisections to adult rhesus monkeys and analyzed behavioral, electrophysiological and anatomical(More)
Following spinal cord contusion in the rat, apoptosis has been observed in the white matter for long distances remote from the center of the lesion and is primarily associated with degenerating fiber tracts. We have previously reported that many of the apoptotic cells are oligodendrocytes. Here we show that the oligodendrocyte death is maximal at 8 days(More)
Excitotoxic cell death due to glutamate release is important in the secondary injury following CNS trauma or ischemia. Proinflammatory cytokines also play a role. Both glutamate and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF(alpha)) are released immediately after spinal cord injury. Neurophysiological studies show that TNF(alpha) can potentiate the effects of(More)