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The hedgehog signaling pathway organizes the developing ventral neural tube by establishing distinct neural progenitor fates along the dorsoventral axis. Smoothened (Smo) is essential for all Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, and genetic inactivation of Smo cells autonomously blocks the ability of cells to transduce the Hh signal. Using a chimeric approach, we(More)
We present a model for flicker phosphenes, the spontaneous appearance of geometric patterns in the visual field when a subject is exposed to diffuse flickering light. We suggest that the phenomenon results from interaction of cortical lateral inhibition with resonant periodic stimuli. We find that the best temporal frequency for eliciting phosphenes is a(More)
BACKGROUND Theranostic nanomaterials composed of fluorescent and photothermal agents can both image and provide a method of disease treatment in clinical oncology. For in vivo use, the near-infrared (NIR) window has been the focus of the majority of studies, because of greater light penetration due to lower absorption and scatter of biological components.(More)
The establishment of anteroposterior (AP) polarity in the early mouse epiblast is crucial for the initiation of gastrulation and the subsequent formation of the embryonic (head to tail) axis. The localization of anterior and posterior determining genes to the appropriate region of the embryo is a dynamic process that underlies this early polarity. Several(More)
PURPOSE Photothermal therapy is an emerging cancer treatment paradigm which involves highly localized heating and killing of tumor cells, due to the presence of nanomaterials that can strongly absorb near-infrared (NIR) light. In addition to having deep penetration depths in tissue, NIR light is innocuous to normal cells. Little is known currently about the(More)
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