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The nuclear pore complex spans the nuclear envelope and functions as a macromolecular transporter in the ATP-dependent process of nucleocytoplasmic transport. In this report, we present three dimensional (3D) structures for both membrane-associated and detergent-extracted Xenopus NPCs, imaged in frozen buffers by cryo-electron microscopy. A comparison of(More)
Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-based mechanochemical protein that plays an essential role in cell division, vesicle transport, and cytoplasmic membrane organization. As a molecular motor, dynein utilizes an ATP hydrolysis mechanism to bind and release microtubules and to undergo conformational changes that result in a net displacement towards the(More)
Isolated skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors (RyRs) complexed with the modulatory ligands, calmodulin (CaM) or 12-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), have been characterized by electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction. RyRs are composed of 4 large subunits (molecular mass 565 kDa) that assemble to form a 4-fold symmetric complex that,(More)
  • J Frank, J Zhu, P Penczek, Y Li, S Srivastava, A Verschoor +4 others
  • 1995
The ribosome is formed by assembly of proteins and nucleic acids, and synthesizes proteins according to genetic instructions in all organisms. Many of the biochemical steps of this fundamental process are known, but a detailed understanding requires a well-defined structural model of the ribosome. Electron microscopy combined with image reconstruction of(More)
The calcium release channel (CRC) from skeletal muscle is an unusually large tetrameric ion channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and it is a major component of the triad junction, the site of excitation contraction coupling. The three-dimensional architecture of the CRC was determined from a random conical tilt series of images extracted from electron(More)
Pattern recognition methods based on the theory of fuzzy sets are tested for their ability to classify electron microscopy images of biological specimens. The concept of fuzzy sets was chosen for its ability to represent classes of objects that are vaguely described from the measured data. A number of partitional clustering algorithms and an extensive set(More)
We have applied a computer-based tomographic technique to reconstruct the three-dimensional ultrastructure of newt lung cilia. Epon-embedded samples were cut into 0.25-micron-thick sections that were imaged at 1 MV with a high-voltage electron microscope. For the reconstruction shown, a tilt series of 53 micrographs was taken at tilt angles between -54(More)
Electron micrographs show the small (30 S) subunit of Escherichia coli ribosomes lying in a wide range of positions on the specimen support, related by rotation principally around the long axis of the particle. Through correspondence analysis, a multivariate statistical method that distinguishes the major factors accounting for interimage variance, the(More)
The structure of complex I from Yarrowia lipolytica was determined by three-dimensional electron microscopy. A random conical data set was collected from deep stain embedded particles. More than 14000 image pairs were analyzed. Through extensive classification combined with three-dimensional reconstruction, it was possible for the first time to show a much(More)
The mitochondrial outer membrane contains a multi-subunit machinery responsible for the specific recognition and translocation of precursor proteins. This translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) consists of three receptor proteins, Tom20, Tom22 and Tom70, the channel protein Tom40, and several small Tom proteins. Single-particle electron microscopy analysis(More)