Michael R. Warnement

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The presynaptic serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) is targeted by widely prescribed antidepressant medications. Altered SERT expression or regulation has been implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression and autism. Here, we implement a generalizable strategy that exploits antagonist-conjugated quantum dots (Qdots) to(More)
Functionalization of highly fluorescent CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (quantum dots, qdots) is an emerging technology for labeling cell surface proteins. We have synthesized a conjugate consisting of approximately 150-200 muscimols (a GABA receptor agonist) covalently joined to the qdot via a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker (approximately 78 ethylene(More)
Nonspecific binding is a frequently encountered problem with fluorescent labeling of tissue cultures when labeled with quantum dots. In these studies various cell lines were examined for nonspecific binding. Evidence suggests that nonspecific binding is related to cell type and may be significantly reduced by functionalizing quantum dots with poly(ethylene(More)
We report a methodology for labeling the GABAc receptor on the surface membrane of intact cells. This work builds upon our earlier work with serotonin-conjugated quantum dots and our studies with PEGylated quantum dots to reduce nonspecific binding. In the current approach, a PEGylated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage(More)
The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (SERT) protein plays a central role in terminating 5-HT neurotransmission and is the most important therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders. We report an innovative, versatile, and target-selective quantum dot (QD) labeling approach for SERT in single Xenopus (More)
Nicotinic receptors (nAchRs) are responsible for fast excitatory signaling by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach). They are present on the postsynaptic membrane at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and also at brain synapses. Alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX), a high-affinity nAchR antagonist, inhibits Ach binding and neurotransmission. Here we demonstrate(More)
Modifications of the quantum dot (QD) surface are routinely performed via covalent biomolecule attachment, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) derivatization has previously been shown to limit nonspecific cellular interactions of QD probes. Attempts to functionalize ampiphilic QDs (AMP-QDs) with custom PEG derivatives having a hydrophobic terminus resulted in(More)
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