Michael R. Ward

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Anti-nitrate-reductase (NR) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) fragments inhibited nitrate uptake into Chlorella cells but had no affect on nitrite uptake. Intact anti-NR serum and preimmune IgG fragments had no affect on nitrate uptake. Membrane-associated NR was detected in plasma-membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The PM-associated(More)
Latent nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was detected in corn (Zea mays L., Golden Jubilee) root microsome fractions. Microsome-associated NRA was stimulated up to 20-fold by Triton X-100 (octylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol) whereas soluble NRA was only increased up to 1.2-fold. Microsome-associated NRA represented up to 19% of the total root NRA. Analysis of(More)
Because of its unique institutional and regulatory features, the generic drug industry provides a useful laboratory for understanding how competition evolves within a market. We exploit these features to estimate certain structural relationships in this industry, including the relationship between price and the number of competitors, and between drug(More)
This paper demonstrates how, by introducing a generic version of its previously-patented product, a branded firm can influence the equilibrium in the generic segment of the market for the product. This in turn can increase the firm’s profits from selling the branded version. We then use structural estimates from previous literature to calculate the(More)
PURPOSE Enhancing clinician-investigator (CI) training at Canadian medical schools is urgently needed to bolster the dwindling work force of medical professionals carrying out patient-oriented research in a wide array of medical fields. The purpose of this study is to obtain, from the 15 Canadian medical schools that offer one or more CI training programs,(More)
We empirically estimate the substitutability of fixed and mobile services for telecommunications access using a large, U.S. household survey conducted over the period 1999-2001. We find significant positive cross-price elasticities between mobile and wireline usage. Because mobile usage prices fell dramatically over this period, we estimate that wireline(More)
Concern over regulated monopolies entering unregulated vertically-related markets is grounded in the incentives for such firms to cross-subsidize their unregulated enterprises or discriminate against competitors in the unregulated market. However, a prohibition against regulated monopolies offering related goods may forfeit the benefits of production by the(More)
Psychological studies invariably find a positive relationship between violent video game play and aggression. However, these studies cannot account for either aggressive effects of alternative activities video game playing substitutes for or the possible selection of relatively violent people into playing violent video games. That is, they lack external(More)
US education policy encourages the use of computers and the Internet at both the college level and the K-12 level. As a consequence, students have had better access to technologies to illicitly share copyrighted music and divert sales from the traditional music store retail channel. Using a panel of counties over the 1994-2004 period, I find evidence that(More)