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We have developed epifluorescence filter sets and computer software for the detection and discrimination of 27 different DNA probes hybridized simultaneously. For karyotype analysis, a pool of human chromosome painting probes, each labelled with a different fluor combination, was hybridized to metaphase chromosomes prepared from normal cells, clinical(More)
Studies of higher-order chromatin arrangements are an essential part of ongoing attempts to explore changes in epigenome structure and their functional implications during development and cell differentiation. However, the extent and cell-type-specificity of three-dimensional (3D) chromosome arrangements has remained controversial. In order to overcome(More)
BACKGROUND Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular cancer. There are no effective therapies for metastatic disease. Mutations in GNAQ, the gene encoding an alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, are found in 40% of uveal melanomas. METHODS We sequenced exon 5 of GNAQ and GNA11, a paralogue of GNAQ, in 713 melanocytic neoplasms of different(More)
The complex interactions between tumors and their microenvironment remain to be elucidated. Combining large-scale approaches, we examined the spatio-temporal dynamics of 28 different immune cell types (immunome) infiltrating tumors. We found that the immune infiltrate composition changed at each tumor stage and that particular cells had a major impact on(More)
The rapid spread of the use of new 24-color karyotyping techniques has preceded their standardization. This is best documented by the fact that the exact resolution limits have not yet been defined. Indeed, it is shown here that a substantial proportion of interchromosomal aberrations will be missed by all multicolor karyotyping systems currently in use. We(More)
A PCR strategy is described for global amplification of DNA from a single eukaryotic cell that enables the comprehensive analysis of the whole genome. By comparative genomic hybridization, not only gross DNA copy number variations, such as monosomic X and trisomic 21 in single male cells and cells from Down's syndrome patients, respectively, but multiple(More)
A gene density-related difference in the radial arrangement of chromosome territories (CTs) was previously described for human lymphocyte nuclei with gene-poor CT #18 located toward the nuclear periphery and gene-dense CT #19 in the nuclear interior (Croft, J.A., J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague, and W.A. Bickmore. 1999. J. Cell Biol.(More)
Multiplex-FISH (M-FISH) is a recently developed technique by which each of the two dozen human chromosomes-the 22 autosomes and the X and Y sex chromosomes-can be stained or "painted" with uniquely distinctive colors. Using a combinatorial labeling technique and a specially designed filter set, each DNA probe can be identified by its unique spectral(More)
Karyotyping of mouse chromosomes is a skillful art, which is laborious work even for experienced cytogeneticists. With the growing number of mouse models for human diseases, there is an increasing demand for automated mouse karyotyping systems. Here, such a karyotyping system for mouse chromosomes based on the multiplex-fluorescence in-situ hybridization(More)