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−) contamination of ground and surface waters has placed drinking water supplies at risk in communities throughout the US, especially in the West. Several major assessment studies of that risk in terms of health and environmental impact are expected to be released by the US Environmental Protection Agency in early 1999, and preparations for how best to(More)
OBJECTIVE We reviewed the sources of lead in the environments of U.S. children, contributions to children's blood lead levels, source elimination and control efforts, and existing federal authorities. Our context is the U.S. public health goal to eliminate pediatric elevated blood lead levels (EBLs) by 2010. DATA SOURCES National, state, and local(More)
This study presents the first detailed look at vanadium (V) speciation in drinking water pipe corrosion scales. A pool of 34 scale layers from 15 lead or lead-lined pipes representing eight different municipal drinking water distribution systems in the Northeastern and Midwestern portions of the United States were examined. Diverse synchrotron-based(More)
Previously, contaminants, such as AI, As, and Ra, have been shown to accumulate in drinking-water distribution system solids. Accumulated contaminants could be periodically released back into the water supply causing elevated levels at consumers taps, going undetected by most current regulatory monitoring practices and consequently constituting a hidden(More)
Comparative stagnation sampling conducted in 32 homes in Chicago, Illinois with lead service lines demonstrated that the existing regulatory sampling protocol under the U.S. Lead and Copper Rule systematically misses the high lead levels and potential human exposure. Lead levels measured with sequential sampling were highest within the lead service lines,(More)
Historically, understanding lead solubility and its control in drinking water has been based on Pb(II) chemistry. Unfortunately, there is very little information available regarding the nature of Pb(IV) oxides in finished drinking water and water distribution systems, and the conditions under which they persist. The objective of this research was to explore(More)
To determine if residential water sampling corroborates the expectation that formation of stable PbO2 coatings on lead service lines (LSLs) provides an effective lead release control strategy, lead profile sampling was evaluated for eight home kitchen taps in three U.S. cities with observed PbO2-coated LSLs (Newport, Rhode Island; Cincinnati and Oakwood,(More)
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