Michael R Hollingdale

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Volunteers immunized with gamma-irradiated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites serve as the gold standard for protective immunity against mosquito-borne malaria transmission and provide a relevant model for studying protective immune effector mechanisms. During a 7-12 month period, we immunized four volunteers via the bites of irradiated, infected mosquitoes.(More)
Two groups of volunteers were vaccinated by repeated exposure to the bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected, x-irradiated mosquitoes in order to characterize the humoral and cellular immune responses of sporozoite-immunized, protected individuals. One of the two volunteers in the first immunization trial, when challenged by the bite of P.(More)
Twenty malaria-naive volunteers received a recombinant Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine (RTS,S) containing 19 NANP repeats and the carboxy terminus (amino acids 210-398) of the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen coexpressed in yeast with hepatitis B surface antigen. Ten received vaccine adjuvanted with alum, and 10 received vaccine adjuvanted with alum plus(More)
A vaccine is urgently needed to stem the global resurgence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Vaccines targeting the erythrocytic stage are often viewed as an anti-disease strategy. By contrast, infection might be completely averted by a vaccine against the liver stage, a pre-erythrocytic stage during which the parasite multiplies 10000-fold within(More)
Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax sporozoites were observed to invade cultured human hepatoma cells in vitro. Monoclonal antibodies to the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of each of these malarial species blocked invasion. Inhibition was species-specific, but was independent of the geographic origin of each strain. Because these monoclonal antibodies have(More)
Using a rodent malaria system, we have shown that protective immunity to the preerythrocytic stages of malaria is genetically controlled by MHC and non-MHC genes. Ten congenic strains of mice were immunized with irradiated sporozoites of Plasmodium yoelii. When challenged with viable sporozoites, only two strains had a high proportion of animals that did(More)
Three novel non-CS antigens have been identified on P. falciparum and P. berghei sporozoites and exoerythrocytic parasites. CSP-2 is a sporozoite surface protein common to P. falciparum and P. berghei that elicits antibody-mediated protection, and is also found within P. berghei EE parasites. LSA is a P. falciparum EE-specific antigen localized within the(More)
Two structurally distinct nuclear genes code for cytoplasmic small subunit ribosomal RNA's in the parasite Plasmodium berghei. Stable transcripts from one of the ribosomal RNA genes are found almost exclusively in those stages of the life cycle that develop in the mosquito. When the parasite infects the mammalian host, transcripts from the second gene(More)
Liver-stage antigen 1 (LSA1) is one of several pre-erythrocytic antigens considered for inclusion in a multiantigen, multistage subunit vaccine against falciparum malaria. We examined T-cell proliferation and cytokine responses to peptides corresponding to amino acids 84 to 107, 1813 to 1835, and 1888 to 1909 of LSA1 in asymptomatic adults living in an area(More)
The model of protective immunity induced by immunization with irradiated plasmodia sporozoites (SPZ) has become the prototype for a promising vaccine strategy based on Ab and CTL responses directed against pre-erythrocytic stage Ags, in particular the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and sporozoite surface protein 2 (SSP2). However, results from recently(More)