Michael R. Grunstein

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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) outwardly appear to be indistinguishable from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A study of gene expression profiles of mouse and human ESCs and iPSCs suggests that, while iPSCs are quite similar to their embryonic counterparts, a recurrent gene expression signature appears in iPSCs regardless of their origin or the method(More)
The yeast histone deacetylase Rpd3 can be recruited to promoters to repress transcription initiation. Biochemical, genetic, and gene-expression analyses show that Rpd3 exists in two distinct complexes. The smaller complex, Rpd3C(S), shares Sin3 and Ume1 with Rpd3C(L) but contains the unique subunits Rco1 and Eaf3. Rpd3C(S) mutants exhibit phenotypes(More)
The Sir3 protein helps form telomeric heterochromatin by interacting with hypoacetylated histone H4 lysine 16 (H4-Lys16). The molecular nature of the heterochromatin boundary is still unknown. Here we show that the MYST-like acetyltransferase Sas2p is required for the acetylation (Ac) of H4-Lys16 in euchromatin. In a sas2Delta strain or a phenocopy Lys16Arg(More)
The silent mating loci and chromosomal regions adjacent to telomeres of S. cerevisiae have features similar to heterochromatin of more complex eukaryotes. Transcriptional repression at these sites depends on the silent information regulators SIR3 and SIR4 as well as histones H3 and H4. We show here that the SIR3 and SIR4 proteins interact with specific(More)
Histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases with specificities for different sites of acetylation affect common chromatin regions. This could generate unique patterns of acetylation that may specify downstream biological processes. To search for existence of these patterns and their relationship to gene activity, we analyzed the genome-wide acetylation(More)
Increased histone acetylation has been correlated with increased transcription, and regions of heterochromatin are generally hypoacetylated. In investigating the cause-and-effect relationship between histone acetylation and gene activity, we have characterized two yeast histone deacetylase complexes. Histone deacetylase-A (HDA) is an approximately 350-kDa(More)
Yeast core telomeric heterochromatin can silence adjacent genes and requires RAP1, SIR2, SIR3, and SIR4 and histones H3 and H4 for this telomere position effect. SIR3 overproduction can extend the silenced domain. We examine here the nature of these multiprotein complexes. SIR2 and SIR4 were immunoprecipitated from whole-cell extracts. In addition, using(More)
Histone acetylation regulates many cellular processes, and specific acetylation marks, either singly or in combination, produce distinct outcomes. For example, the acetylation pattern on newly synthesized histones is important for their assembly into nucleosomes by histone chaperones. Additionally, the degree of chromatin compaction and folding may be(More)
Telomeric TG-rich repeats and their associated proteins protect the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes from end-to-end fusions. Associated with the cap structure at yeast telomeres is a subtelomeric domain of heterochromatin, containing the silent information regulator (SIR) complex. The Ku70/80 heterodimer (yKu) is associated both with the chromosome end(More)