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Genome-wide expression analysis was used to identify genes whose expression depends on the functions of key components of the transcription initiation machinery in yeast. Components of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, the general transcription factor TFIID, and the SAGA chromatin modification complex were found to have roles in expression of distinct sets(More)
In higher eukaryotes, the polypyrimidine-tract (Py-tract) adjacent to the 3' splice site is recognized by several proteins, including the essential splicing factor U2AF65, the splicing regulator Sex-lethal (Sxl), and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), whose function is unknown. Iterative in vitro genetic selection was used to show that these(More)
Pre-mRNA splicing complex assembly is mediated by two specific pre-mRNA-snRNP interactions: U1 snRNP binds to the 5' splice site and U2 snRNP binds to the branch point. Here we show that unlike a purified U1 snRNP, which can bind to a 5' splice site, a partially purified U2 snRNP cannot interact with its target pre-mRNA sequence. We identify a previously(More)
Expression of an oncogene in a primary cell can, paradoxically, block proliferation by inducing senescence or apoptosis through pathways that remain to be elucidated. Here we perform genome-wide RNA-interference screening to identify 17 genes required for an activated BRAF oncogene (BRAFV600E) to block proliferation of human primary fibroblasts and(More)
BACKGROUND Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) or ChIP followed by genome tiling array analysis (ChIP-chip) have become standard technologies for genome-wide identification of DNA-binding protein target sites. A number of algorithms have been developed in parallel that allow identification of binding sites(More)
The transcription factors TFIID and SAGA are multi-subunit complexes involved in transcription by RNA polymerase II. TFIID and SAGA contain common TATA-binding protein (TBP)-associated factor (TAF(II)) subunits and each complex contains a subunit with histone acetyltransferase activity. These observations have raised questions about whether the functions of(More)
The faithful execution of biological processes requires a precise and carefully orchestrated set of steps that depend on the proper spatial and temporal expression of genes. Here we review the various classes of transcriptional regulatory elements (core promoters, proximal promoters, distal enhancers, silencers, insulators/boundary elements, and locus(More)
We have searched the human genome for genes encoding new proteins that may be involved in three nuclear gene expression processes: transcription, pre-messenger RNA splicing and polyadenylation. A plethora of potential new factors are implicated by sequence in nuclear gene expression, revealing a substantial but selective increase in complexity compared with(More)
In mammalian nuclei, precursor messenger RNA splicing factors are distributed non-uniformly. Antibodies directed against structural polypeptides of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) and some non-snRNP splicing factors have shown that these components are concentrated in about 20-50 nuclear 'speckles'. These and other non-homogeneous(More)
Human beta-globin mRNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) synthesized in vitro from a bacteriophage SP6 promoter/beta-globin gene fusion are accurately and efficiently spliced when added to a HeLa cell nuclear extract. Under optimal conditions, the first intervening sequence (IVS 1) is removed by splicing in up to 90% of the input pre-mRNA. Splicing requires ATP and in(More)