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RNA interference through non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) represents a vital component of the innate antiviral immune response in plants and invertebrate animals; however, a role for cellular miRNAs in the defence against viral infection in mammalian organisms has thus far remained elusive. Here we show that interferon beta (IFNbeta) rapidly modulates the(More)
Nuclear receptors (NRs) repress transcriptional responses to diverse signaling pathways as an essential aspect of their biological activities, but mechanisms determining the specificity and functional consequences of transrepression remain poorly understood. Here, we report signal- and gene-specific repression of transcriptional responses initiated by(More)
Surgical debridement and prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy are an established management strategy for infection after tibial fractures. Local antibiotic delivery via cement beads has shown improved outcome but requires further surgery for extraction of beads. OSTEOSET(®)-T is a resorbable bone void filler composed of calcium sulphate and 4 % tobramycin(More)
Posttranslational modification of proteins within T cell receptor signaling cascades allows T lymphocytes to rapidly initiate an appropriate immune response. Here we report a role for arginine methylation in regulating cytokine gene transcription in the T helper lymphocyte. Inhibition of arginine methylation impaired the expression of several cytokine(More)
In mammals, one of the most pronounced consequences of viral infection is the induction of type I interferons, cytokines with potent antiviral activity. Schlafen (Slfn) genes are a subset of interferon-stimulated early response genes (ISGs) that are also induced directly by pathogens via the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) pathway. However, many ISGs(More)
of the best conserved regions among the STAT proteins and has therefore been the target of intense investiga-residues is the only known posttranslational modification of STAT proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 via the interferon receptor requires the activity Summary of the Janus Kinase (JAK) family of tyrosine kinases Transcriptional induction by(More)
IFNs are a family of cytokines that are involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Clinical use of IFN-alpha/beta encompasses treatment for a variety of diseases; however, prolonged exposure to IFN-alpha/beta results in elevated levels of autoreactive Abs. In this study, we investigated the potential of IFNs to modulate apoptotic(More)
Type I and II interferons (IFNs) exert opposing effects on the progression of multiple sclerosis, even though both IFNs use the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) as a signaling mediator. Here we report that STAT1-deficient mice expressing a transgenic T cell receptor against myelin basic protein spontaneously develop experimental(More)