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The ESX-1 locus is a region critical for full virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which encodes two secreted proteins as well as other genes involved in their secretion. The mechanism of secretion of the two proteins, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, and their function remain unknown. Using proteomic methods to search for additional proteins secreted by the ESX-1(More)
A comprehensive mapping of interactions among Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins and interactions of EBV proteins with human proteins should provide specific hypotheses and a broad perspective on EBV strategies for replication and persistence. Interactions of EBV proteins with each other and with human proteins were assessed by using a stringent(More)
Tuberculosis poses a global health emergency, which has been compounded by the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains. We used whole-genome sequencing to compare the accumulation of mutations in Mtb isolated from cynomolgus macaques with active, latent or reactivated disease. We sequenced 33 Mtb isolates from nine macaques with(More)
The development of increasingly high-throughput and sensitive mass spectroscopy-based proteomic techniques provides new opportunities to examine the physiology and pathophysiology of many biologic fluids and tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine protein expression profiles of high-abundance synovial fluid (SF) proteins in health and in the(More)
Prophenoloxidase (PPO) is a key enzyme associated with both melanin biosynthesis and sclerotization in insects. This enzyme is involved in three physiologically important processes viz., cuticular hardening, defense reactions and wound healing in insects. It was isolated from the larval hemolymph of Sarcophaga bullata and purified by employing ammonium(More)
Prochlorococcus, an abundant phototroph in the oceans, are infected by members of three families of viruses: myo-, podo- and siphoviruses. Genomes of myo- and podoviruses isolated on Prochlorococcus contain DNA replication machinery and virion structural genes homologous to those from coliphages T4 and T7 respectively. They also contain a suite of genes of(More)
T4-like myoviruses are ubiquitous, and their genes are among the most abundant documented in ocean systems. Here we compare 26 T4-like genomes, including 10 from non-cyanobacterial myoviruses, and 16 from marine cyanobacterial myoviruses (cyanophages) isolated on diverse Prochlorococcus or Synechococcus hosts. A core genome of 38 virion construction and DNA(More)
Mature Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was purified from the culture medium of infected lymphocytes made functionally conditional for Zta activation of lytic replication by an in-frame fusion with a mutant estrogen receptor. Proteins in purified virus preparations were separated by gradient gel electrophoresis and trypsin-digested; peptides were then analyzed by(More)
The deep-sea soft-sediment environment hosts a diverse and highly endemic fauna of uncertain origin. We know little about how this fauna evolved because geographic patterns of genetic variation, the essential information for inferring patterns of population differentiation and speciation are poorly understood. Using formalin-fixed specimens from archival(More)
The deep sea is the largest ecosystem on Earth. Recent exploration has revealed that it supports a highly diverse and endemic benthic invertebrate fauna, yet the evolutionary processes that generate this remarkable species richness are virtually unknown. Environmental heterogeneity, topographic complexity, and morphological divergence all tend to decrease(More)