Michael R Botchan

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The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the(More)
The origin recognition complex (ORC) is required to initiate eukaryotic DNA replication and also engages in transcriptional silencing in S. cerevisiae. We observed a striking preferential but not exclusive association of Drosophila ORC2 with heterochromatin on interphase and mitotic chromosomes. HP1, a heterochromatin-localized protein required for position(More)
The protein Cdc45 plays a critical but poorly understood role in the initiation and elongation stages of eukaryotic DNA replication. To study Cdc45's function in DNA replication, we purified Cdc45 protein from Drosophila embryo extracts by a combination of traditional and immunoaffinity chromatography steps and found that the protein exists in a stable,(More)
MCM2-7 proteins provide essential helicase functions in eukaryotes at chromosomal DNA replication forks. During the G1 phase of the cell cycle, they remain loaded on DNA but are inactive. We have used recombinant methods to show that the Drosophila MCM2-7 helicase is activated in complex with Cdc45 and the four GINS proteins (CMG complex). Biochemical(More)
The Drosophila Myb complex has roles in both activating and repressing developmentally regulated DNA replication. To further understand biochemically the functions of the Myb complex, we fractionated Drosophila embryo extracts relying upon affinity chromatography. We found that E2F2, DP, RBF1, RBF2, and the Drosophila homolog of LIN-52, a class B synthetic(More)
The earliest stages of development in most metazoans are driven by maternally deposited proteins and mRNAs, with widespread transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome occurring hours after fertilization, at a period known as the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). In Drosophila, the MZT is preceded by the transcription of a small number of genes(More)
Two central steps for initiating eukaryotic DNA replication involve loading of the Mcm2-7 helicase onto double-stranded DNA and its activation by GINS-Cdc45. To better understand these events, we determined the structures of Mcm2-7 and the CMG complex by using single-particle electron microscopy. Mcm2-7 adopts two conformations--a lock-washer-shaped spiral(More)
Drosophila origin recognition complex (ORC) localizes to defined positions on chromosomes, and in follicle cells the chorion gene amplification loci are well-studied examples. However, the mechanism of specific localization is not known. We have studied the DNA binding of DmORC to investigate the cis-requirements for DmORC:DNA interaction. DmORC displays at(More)
The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a six subunit complex required for eukaryotic DNA replication initiation and for silencing of the heterochromatic mating type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our discovery of the Drosophila ORC complex concentrated in the centric heterochromatin of mitotic cells in the early embryo and its interactions with(More)
Myb-MuvB (MMB)/dREAM is a nine-subunit complex first described in Drosophila as a repressor of transcription, dependent on E2F2 and the RBFs. Myb, an integral member of MMB, curiously plays no role in the silencing of the test genes previously analyzed. Moreover, Myb plays an activating role in DNA replication in Drosophila egg chamber follicle cells. The(More)