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The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the(More)
There is considerable interest in the developmental, temporal and tissue-specific patterns of DNA replication in metazoans. Site-specific DNA replication at the chorion loci in Drosophila follicle cells leads to extensive gene amplification, and the organization of the cis-acting DNA elements that regulate this process may provide a model for how such(More)
The Cdc45/Mcm2-7/GINS (CMG) helicase separates DNA strands during replication in eukaryotes. How the CMG is assembled and engages DNA substrates remains unclear. Using electron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the CMG in the presence of ATPγS and a DNA duplex bearing a 3' single-stranded tail. The structure shows that the MCM subunits of the(More)
Initiation of cellular DNA replication is tightly controlled to sustain genomic integrity. In eukaryotes, the heterohexameric origin recognition complex (ORC) is essential for coordinating replication onset. Here we describe the crystal structure of Drosophila ORC at 3.5 Å resolution, showing that the 270 kilodalton initiator core complex comprises a(More)
The initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells at the onset of S phase requires the origin recognition complex (ORC) [1]. This six-subunit complex, first isolated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [2], is evolutionarily conserved [1]. ORC participates in the formation of the prereplicative complex [3], which is necessary to establish replication(More)
The origin recognition complex (ORC) is required to initiate eukaryotic DNA replication and also engages in transcriptional silencing in S. cerevisiae. We observed a striking preferential but not exclusive association of Drosophila ORC2 with heterochromatin on interphase and mitotic chromosomes. HP1, a heterochromatin-localized protein required for position(More)
Soluble extracts from uninfected murine cells supplemented with purified viral E1 and E2 proteins support the replication of exogenously added papilloma virus DNA. The E2 transactivator stimulates the binding of the E1 replication protein to the minimal origin of replication and activates DNA replication. These results support the concept that transcription(More)
For papillomavirus DNA replication, the E2 enhancer protein cooperatively assists in binding of the E1 helicase to the origin. We report that, at limiting E1 and E2 levels, the enhancer proteins GAL4-VP16 and GAL4-p53(1-73) stimulate BPV in vitro DNA replication. This cell-free system was used to ascertain whether the acidic activation domains have a(More)
The earliest stages of development in most metazoans are driven by maternally deposited proteins and mRNAs, with widespread transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome occurring hours after fertilization, at a period known as the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). In Drosophila, the MZT is preceded by the transcription of a small number of genes(More)