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It has long been predicted that the scattering of ultracold atoms can be altered significantly through a so-called 'Feshbach resonance'. Two such resonances have now been observed in optically trapped Bose–Einstein condensates of sodium atoms by varying an external magnetic field. They gave rise to enhanced inelastic processes and a dispersive variation of(More)
Wireless communications are a fundamental part of modern information infrastructure. But wireless bandwidth is costly, prompting a close examination of the data channels available using electromagnetic waves. Classically, radio communications have relied on one channel per frequency, although it is well understood that the two polarization states of planar(More)
Bose-Einstein condensation of sodium atoms has been observed in a novel " cloverleaf " trap. This trap combines tight confinement with excellent optical access, using only dc electromagnets. Evaporative cooling in this trap produced condensates of 5 3 10 6 atoms, a tenfold improvement over previous results. We measured the condensate fraction and the(More)
Collective excitations of a dilute Bose condensate have been observed. These excitations are analogous to phonons in superfluid helium. Bose condensates were created by evaporatively cooling magnetically trapped sodium atoms. Excitations were induced by a modulation of the trapping potential, and detected as shape oscillations in the freely expanding(More)
We have observed evaporative cooling of magnetically trapped sodium atoms. A novel technique, rf induced evaporation, was used to reduce the temperature by a factor of 12 and increase the phase space density by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The elastic collision cross section of cold sodium atoms in the F ෇ 1, m F ෇ 21 hyperfine state was determined to(More)
Bose-Einstein condensates of sodium atoms have been confined in an optical dipole trap using a single focused infrared laser beam. This eliminates the restrictions of magnetic traps for further studies of atom lasers and Bose-Einstein condensates. More than 5 3 10 6 condensed atoms were transferred into the optical trap. Densities of up to 3 3 10 15 cm 23(More)
The properties of Bose–Einstein condensed gases can be strongly altered by tuning the external magnetic field near a Feshbach resonance. Feshbach resonances affect elastic collisions and lead to the observed modification of the scattering length. However, as we report here, this is accompanied by a strong increase in the rate of inelastic collisions. The(More)
We have demonstrated an output coupler for Bose condensed atoms in a magnetic trap. Short pulses of rf radiation were used to create Bose condensates in a superposition of trapped and untrapped hyperfine states. The fraction of out-coupled atoms was adjusted between 0% and 100% by varying the amplitude of the rf radiation. This configuration produces output(More)
The formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of a dilute atomic gas has been studied in situ with a nondestructive, time-resolved imaging technique. Sodium atoms were evaporatively cooled close to the onset of Bose-Einstein condensation and then suddenly quenched to below the transition temperature. The subsequent equilibration and condensate formation(More)
Collective excitations of a dilute Bose gas were probed above and below the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature. The temperature dependencies of the frequency and damping rates of condensate oscillations indicate significant interactions between the condensate and the thermal cloud. Hydrodynamic oscillations of the thermal cloud analogous to first sound(More)