Tumor relapses remain a serious problem after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), despite the long-term persistence of minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA)-specific memory CD8(+) T cells specific for the tumor. We hypothesized that these memory T cells may lose their function over time in transplanted patients. Here, we offer functional and… (More)
For a long time, the second-hand retail market was the preserve of the charity shop. However, the advent of services like eBay has massively increased its prominence. In this paper we describe a novel Internet of Things-based approach to enhancing the second-hand retail experience by augmenting items with their provenance. After a discussion of the… (More)
Studies have been conducted to measure competitiveness in the construction industry. Such research has focused on all levels from the national picture to individual projects. While useful, the results are limited in that they present a snapshot picture at one point in time. Moreover, they do not suggest how under-performance might be improved. The research… (More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To explore the sleep onset process in primary insomnia patients, new rules for scoring 4-second epochs were implemented to score sleep and artifacts during initial sleep onset. Conventional scorings in 20-second and 60-second epochs were also obtained. METHODS The start of the initial 60-second epoch of stage 1 was used to define "time… (More)
The monoclonal antibodies ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) and nivolumab (anti-PD-1) have shown remarkable antitumor activity in an increasing number of cancers. When combined, ipilimumab and nivolumab have demonstrated superior activity in patients with metastatic melanoma (CHECKMATE-067). Here we describe the preclinical development strategy that predicted these… (More)
Introductory Paragraph CD8 + T cells in chronic viral infections like HIV develop functional defects such as loss of IL-2 secretion and decreased proliferative potential that are collectively termed exhaustion 1. Exhausted T cells express increased levels of multiple inhibitory receptors, such as Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) 2,3 that contribute to impaired… (More)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161779.].
In the UK, formal tertiary education comes at monetary cost to those who choose to participate. Currently 43% of young people enter universities in the belief that they will recoup the expense in higher salaries, later in life. Whilst this is a historically true model for the majority of graduates, many analysts believe that the Government's push for 50%… (More)