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This study develops theory and uses a door-to-door fund-raising field experiment to explore the economics of charity. We approached nearly 5000 households, randomly divided into four experimental treatments, to shed light on key issues on the demand side of charitable fund-raising. Empirical results are in line with our theory: in gross terms, the lotteries(More)
1 Recent discoveries in behavioral economics have led scholars to question the underpinnings of neoclassical economics. We use insights gained from one of the most influential lines of behavioral research—gift exchange—in an attempt to maximize worker effort in two quite distinct tasks: data entry for a university library and door-to-door fundraising for a(More)
Singlet oxygen (1O2) is the primary oxidant generated in photodynamic therapy (PDT) protocols involving sensitizers resulting in type II reactions. 1O2 can give rise to additional reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as the hydroxyl radical (*OH). The current study was designed to assess 3'-p-(aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) and 3'-p-(hydroxyphenyl)(More)
Although the first reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during irradiation of photosensitized cells is almost invariably singlet molecular oxygen (1O2), other ROS have been implicated in the phototoxic effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Among these are superoxide anion radical (*O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (*OH). In this study,(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves photosensitizing agents that, in the presence of oxygen and light, initiate formation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). PDT commonly induces both apoptosis and autophagy. Previous studies with murine hepatoma 1c1c7 cells indicated that loss of autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7) inhibited autophagy and enhanced(More)
This study explores the economics of charitable fund-raising. We begin by developing theory that examines the optimal lottery design while explicitly relaxing both risk-neutrality and preference homogeneity assumptions. We test our theory using a battery of experimental treatments and find that our theoretical predictions are largely confirmed.(More)
We are grateful to Jamie Brown-Kruse for working with us in her capacity as the Director of the Hazard Center. We thank the Editor and three anonymous referees for excellent insights that markedly improved the study. and seminar participants at several universities, conferences, and meetings also provided useful insights. The views expressed herein are(More)
Auction theory has represented one of the richest areas of research in the past three decades. This study extends this line of work by examining theoretically the effect of allowing resale opportunities when private values are uncertain and all bidders are not risk neutral. We put our theory, and previous theory, to the test by combining field and(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a process that can induce apoptosis, autophagy or both depending on the cell phenotype. Apoptosis is a pathway to cell death while autophagy can protect from photokilling or act as a death pathway. In a previous study, we reported a cytoprotective effect of autophagy in murine leukemia cell lines where both autophagy and(More)