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Atomically thin two-dimensional crystals have revolutionized materials science. In particular, monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides promise novel optoelectronic applications, owing to their direct energy gaps in the optical range. Their electronic and optical properties are dominated by Coulomb-bound electron-hole pairs called excitons, whose unusual(More)
We measure the anisotropic midinfrared response of electrons and phonons in bulk YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ) after femtosecond photoexcitation. A line shape analysis of specific lattice modes reveals their transient occupation and coupling to the superconducting condensate. The apex oxygen vibration is strongly excited within 150 fs, demonstrating that the lattice(More)
The simultaneous ordering of different degrees of freedom in complex materials undergoing spontaneous symmetry-breaking transitions often involves intricate couplings that have remained elusive in phenomena as wide ranging as stripe formation, unconventional superconductivity or colossal magnetoresistance. Ultrafast optical, X-ray and electron pulses can(More)
The interplay among charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom in solids gives rise to intriguing macroscopic quantum phenomena such as colossal magnetoresistance, multiferroicity and high-temperature superconductivity. Strong coupling or competition between various orders in these systems presents the key to manipulate their functional properties by means(More)
In ultrabroadband terahertz electro-optic sampling (EOS), spectral filtering of the gate pulse can strongly reduce the quantum noise while the signal level is only weakly affected. The concept is tested for phase-matched electro-optic detection of field transients centered at 45 THz with 12 fs near-infrared gate pulses in AgGaS2. Our new approach increases(More)
We probe the mid-infrared conductivity of YBa<inf>2</inf>Cu<inf>3</inf>O<inf>7-&#x03B4;</inf> parallel and perpendicular to the CuO<inf>2</inf> planes after 12-fs optical excitation. Quasiparticle excitations and specific lattice modes are traced simultaneously during the photoinduced non-thermal transition to the normal state. The condensate is completely(More)
Condensation of bosons causes spectacular phenomena such as superfluidity or superconductivity. Understanding the nature of the condensed particles is crucial for active control of such quantum phases. Fascinating possibilities emerge from condensates of light-matter-coupled excitations, such as exciton-polaritons, photons hybridized with hydrogen-like(More)
We map out the band structure of a one-dimensional photonic crystal while a 12-fs control pulse activates ultrastrong interaction with quantized electronic transitions in semiconductor quantum wells. Phase-locked multi-terahertz transients trace the buildup of a large vacuum Rabi splitting and an unexpected asymmetric formation of the upper and lower(More)
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