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Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) play an important role in nitrification and many studies exploit their amoA genes as marker for their diversity and abundance. We present an archaeal amoA consensus phylogeny based on all publicly available sequences (status June 2010) and provide evidence for the diversification of AOA into four previously recognized(More)
Thaumarchaeota range among the most abundant archaea on Earth. Initially classified as 'mesophilic Crenarchaeota', comparative genomics has recently revealed that they form a separate and deep-branching phylum within the Archaea. This novel phylum comprises in 16S rRNA gene trees not only all known archaeal ammonia oxidizers but also several clusters of(More)
Methane emission from peatlands contributes substantially to global warming but is significantly reduced by sulfate reduction, which is fuelled by globally increasing aerial sulfur pollution. However, the biology behind sulfate reduction in terrestrial ecosystems is not well understood and the key players for this process as well as their abundance remained(More)
Most widely used medium for cultivation of methanotrophic bacteria from various environments is that proposed in 1970 by Whittenbury. In order to adapt and optimize medium for culturing of methanotrophs from freshwater sediment, media with varying concentrations of substrates, phosphate, nitrate, and other mineral salts were used to enumerate methanotrophs(More)
Diversity and community structure of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria in the littoral sediment of Lake Constance was investigated by cloning analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of the pmoA gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high diversity of type I and type II methanotrophs in the oxygenated uppermost(More)
Nitrospira are the most widespread and diverse known nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and key nitrifiers in natural and engineered ecosystems. Nevertheless, their ecophysiology and environmental distribution are understudied because of the recalcitrance of Nitrospira to cultivation and the lack of a molecular functional marker, which would allow the detection of(More)
The energy metabolism of essential microbial guilds in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle is based on a DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase that either catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide during anaerobic respiration of sulfate, sulfite and organosulfonates, or acts in reverse during sulfur oxidation. Common use of dsrAB as a functional(More)
Freshwater wetlands are a major source of the greenhouse gas methane but at the same time can function as carbon sink. Their response to global warming and environmental pollution is one of the largest unknowns in the upcoming decades to centuries. In this review, we highlight the role of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in the intertwined element(More)
A dietary deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and/or sterols can severely constrain growth and reproduction of invertebrate consumers. Single nutrients are potentially assigned to different physiological processes, for example to support defence mechanisms; therefore, lipid requirements of healthy and pathogen-challenged consumers might(More)
A novel strictly anaerobic, mesophilic bacterium was enriched and isolated with gluconate as sole substrate from a methanogenic sludge collected from a biogas reactor. Cells of strain GluBS11T stained Gram-positive and were non-motile, straight rods, measuring 3.0-4.5 × 0.8-1.2 μm. The temperature range for growth was 15-37 °C, with optimal growth at 30 °C,(More)