Michael Penn

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Although HIV-1 gene expression is detected in naive, resting T cells in vivo, such cells are resistant to productive infection in vitro. However, we found that the endogenous microenvironment of human lymphoid tissues supports de novo infection and depletion of this population. Cell cycle analysis and DNA labeling experiments established that these cells(More)
Chemokine receptors, particularly CCR5 and CXCR4, act as essential coreceptors in concert with CD4 for cellular entry by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1; reviewed in [1]). But infection of CD4(-) cells has also been encountered in various tissues in vivo, including astrocytes, neurons and microvascular endothelial cells of the brain [2] [3] [4](More)
  • M L Penn, J C Grivel, B Schramm, M A Goldsmith, L Margolis
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 1999
The human chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 have emerged as the predominant cofactors, along with CD4, for cellular entry of HIV-1 in vivo whereas the contribution of other chemokine receptors to HIV disease has not been yet determined. CCR5-specific (R5) viruses predominate during primary HIV-1 infection whereas viruses with specificity for CXCR4 (R5/X4(More)
Prior experiments in explants of human lymphoid tissue have demonstrated that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) productively infects diverse cellular targets including T cells and tissue macrophages. We sought to determine the specific contribution of macrophages and T cells to the overall viral burden within lymphoid tissue. To block infection of(More)
The present study sought to determine how usage of coreceptors by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dictates cell tropism and depletion of CD4(+) T cells in human lymphoid tissues cultured ex vivo. We found that coreceptor preferences control the marked, preferential depletion of coreceptor-expressing CD4(+) lymphocytes. In addition, there was a strong,(More)
Epidemiological studies have shown that human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is markedly less pathogenic than HIV-1 in vivo. Individuals infected with HIV-2 exhibit a remarkably slow rate of disease development, and these clinical properties have been attributed presumptively to an "attenuated" phenotype of HIV-2 itself. Here, we investigated the(More)
Preserved peripheral CD4+ T cell counts despite virologic failure in patients undergoing protease inhibitor (PI)-containing antiviral regimens are a frequent occurrence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. One hypothesis to explain the relative sparing of CD4+ T cells is that HIV strains exhibiting PI resistance concomitantly are attenuated in(More)
To evaluate the feasibility of using transgenic rabbits expressing CCR5 and CD4 as a small-animal model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) disease, we examined whether the expression of the human chemokine receptor (CCR5) and human CD4 would render a rabbit cell line (SIRC) permissive to HIV replication. Histologically, SIRC cells expressing CD4(More)
The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 function as the principal coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Coreceptor function has also been demonstrated for a variety of related receptors in vitro. The relative contributions of CCR5, CXCR4, and other putative coreceptors to HIV-1 disease in vivo have yet to be defined. In this study, we(More)
Paleographers study ancient and historical handwriting in order to learn more about documents of significant interest and their creators. Computational tools and methods can aid this task in numerous ways, particularly for languages and scripts that are not widely known today. One project currently underway seeks to gather a collection of securely dated(More)