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In the discussion on toxic and genotoxic thresholds of air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), realistically low urban concentration ranges are of major interest. For NO2, the WHO defines the annual limit value as corresponding to 0.02 ppm. In the present study, the toxicity and genotoxicity of NO2 is set at a concentration under this limit value and(More)
The key step in bacterial translation is formation of the pre-initiation complex. This requires initial contacts between mRNA, fMet-tRNA and the 30S subunit of the ribosome, steps that limit the initiation of translation. Here we report a method for improving translational initiation, which allows expression of several previously non-expressible genes. This(More)
The islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin is a pancreatic hormone and crucially involved in the pathogenesis of type-II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aggregation and amyloid formation of IAPP is considered as the primary culprit for pancreatic beta-cell loss in T2DM patients. In this study, first X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements on IAPP at lipid(More)
The adsorption process of proteins to surfaces is governed by the mutual interactions among proteins, the solution, and the substrate. Interactions arising from the substrate are usually attributed to the uppermost atomic layer. This actual surface defines the surface chemistry and hence steric and electrostatic interactions. For a comprehensive(More)
We have investigated the structure and magnetism of self-assembled, 20 nm diameter iron oxide nanoparticles covered by an oleic acid shell for scrutinizing their structural and magnetic correlations. The nanoparticles were spin-coated on an Si substrate as a single monolayer and as a stack of 5 ML forming a multilayer. X-ray scattering (reflectivity and(More)
A structural interpretation of the thermodynamic stability of proteins requires an understanding of the structural properties of the unfolded state. High-pressure small-angle x-ray scattering was used to measure the effects of temperature, pressure, denaturants, and stabilizing osmolytes on the radii of gyration of folded and unfolded state ensembles of(More)
Supramolecular chemistry holds unique prospects for the fabrication of novel functional materials. Molecular precisely defined subunits (which may already be rather complex self-assemblies) form even more complex structures that exhibit functionalities not provided by the individual building blocks. The coupling of the covalently bonded subunits by(More)
The structure of poly(organosiloxane) nanocapsules partially filled with iron oxide cores of different sizes was revealed by small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray diffraction. The nanocapsules are synthesized by the formation of a poly(organosiloxane) shell around iron oxide nanoparticles and the simultaneous partial dissolution of these cores. Due to the(More)
Herein, we explore the effect of different types of osmolytes on the high-pressure stability and tertiary structure of a well-characterized monomeric protein, staphylococcal nuclease (SNase). Changes in the denaturation pressure and the radius of gyration are obtained in the presence of different concentrations of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), glycerol and(More)