Michael Patrick Wilkie

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The diversity of mechanisms of ammonia and urea excretion by the gills and other epithelia of aquatic organisms, especially fish and crustaceans, has been studied for decades. Although the decades-old dogma of ;aquatic species excrete ammonia' still explains nitrogenous waste excretion for many species, it is clear that there are many mechanistic variations(More)
In fresh water fishes, ammonia is excreted across the branchial epithelium via passive NH(3) diffusion. This NH(3) is subsequently trapped as NH(4)(+) in an acidic unstirred boundary layer lying next to the gill, which maintains the blood-to-gill water NH(3) partial pressure gradient. Whole animal, in situ, ultrastructural and molecular approaches suggest(More)
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) survived in alkaline fresh water (pH = 9.50)for 72 h, although the exposure rendered thefish more susceptible to mortality from other causes. At pH 9.50 ammonia excretion (Jm,,) was initially blocked, and total plasma ammonia levels increased. However, Jamm steadily recovered thereafter; by 48 h control rates were(More)
Acute ammonia toxicity in vertebrates is thought to be characterized by a cascade of deleterious events resembling those associated with anoxic/ischemic injury in the central nervous system. A key event is the over-stimulation of neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which leads to excitotoxic cell death. The similarity between the responses to(More)
Although urea production and metabolism in lungfish have been thoroughly studied, we have little knowledge of how internal osmotic and electrolyte balance are controlled during estivation or in water. We tested the hypothesis that, compared with the body surface of teleosts, the slender African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi) body surface was relatively(More)
Excitotoxic cell death (ECD) is characteristic of mammalian brain following min of anoxia, but is not observed in the western painted turtle following days to months without oxygen. A key event in ECD is a massive increase in intracellular Ca(2+) by over-stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). The turtle's anoxia tolerance may involve the(More)
Although the majority of the sea lamprey's (Petromyzon marinus) life cycle is spent as a burrow-dwelling larva, or ammocoete, surprisingly little is known about intermediary metabolism in this stage of the lamprey's life history. In this study, larval sea lampreys (ammocoetes) were vigorously exercised for 5 min, and their patterns of metabolic fuel(More)
Although the number of fish species that have been studied for both hypoxia/anoxia tolerance and ammonia tolerance are few, there appears to be a correlation between the ability to survive these two insults. After establishing this correlation with examples from the literature, and after examining the role Peter Lutz played in catalyzing this convergent(More)
Models such as the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) predict how natural organic matter (NOM) and competing ions (e.g., Ca(2+), H(+) and Na(+)) affect metal bioavailability and toxicity in aquatic organisms. However, such models focus upon individual metals, not metal mixtures. This study determined whether Pb and Cd interact at the gill of rainbow trout(More)
Natural organic matter (NOM) in aquatic environments reduces metal toxicity to fish by forming metal-NOM complexes, which reduce metal bioavailability, metal-gill binding and toxicity. However, differences in the chemical composition of different types of NOM (quality) could also affect metal-NOM binding and toxicity. We predicted that Cu-gill binding would(More)