Michael Patrick Sheetz

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Axoplasm from the squid giant axon contains a soluble protein translocator that induces movement of microtubules on glass, latex beads on microtubules, and axoplasmic organelles on microtubules. We now report the partial purification of a protein from squid giant axons and optic lobes that induces these microtubule-based movements and show that there is a(More)
To move forward, migrating cells must generate traction forces through surface receptors bound to extracellular matrix molecules coupled to a rigid structure. We investigated whether cells sample and respond to the rigidity of the anchoring matrix. Movement of beads coated with fibronectin or an anti-integrin antibody was restrained with an optical trap on(More)
Analysis of the trajectories of small particles at high spatial and temporal resolution using video enhanced contrast microscopy provides a powerful approach to characterizing the mechanisms of particle motion in living cells and in other systems. We present here the theoretical basis for the analysis of these trajectories for particles undergoing random(More)
The shapes of eukaryotic cells and ultimately the organisms that they form are defined by cycles of mechanosensing, mechanotransduction and mechanoresponse. Local sensing of force or geometry is transduced into biochemical signals that result in cell responses even for complex mechanical parameters such as substrate rigidity and cell-level form. These(More)
Binding interactions between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton define cell functions such as cell shape, formation of cell processes, cell movement, and endocytosis. Here we use optical tweezers tether force measurements and show that plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) acts as a second messenger that regulates the adhesion(More)
Although cytoplasmic dynein is known to attach to microtubules and translocate toward their minus ends, dynein's ability to serve in vitro as a minus end-directed transporter of membranous organelles depends on additional soluble factors. We show here that a approximately 20S polypeptide complex (referred to as Activator I; Schroer, T. A., and M.P. Sheetz.(More)
How physical force is sensed by cells and transduced into cellular signaling pathways is poorly understood. Previously, we showed that tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas (Cas) in a cytoskeletal complex is involved in force-dependent activation of the small GTPase Rap1. Here, we mechanically extended bacterially expressed Cas substrate domain protein(More)
Several enzyme complexes drive cellular movements by coupling free energy-liberating chemical reactions to the production of mechanical work. A key goal in the study of these systems is to characterize at the molecular level mechanical events associated with individual reaction steps in the catalytic cycles of single enzyme molecules. Ideally, one would(More)
Cell spreading, adhesion and remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) involve bi-directional signalling and physical linkages between the ECM, integrins and the cell cytoskeleton. The actin-binding proteins talin1 and 2 link ligand-bound integrins to the actin cytoskeleton and increase the affinity of integrin for the ECM. Here we report that depletion(More)
What is the origin of the forces generating chromosome and spindle movements in mitosis? Both microtubule dynamics and microtubule-dependent motors have been proposed as the source of these motor forces. Cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin are two soluble proteins that power membranous organelle movements on microtubules. Kinesin directs movement of organelles(More)