Michael P. Willand

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Despite advances in surgery, patients with nerve injuries frequently have functional deficits. We previously demonstrated in a rat model that daily electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) following peripheral nerve injury and repair enhances reinnervation, detectable as early as two weeks post-injury. In this study, we explain the enhanced early reinnervation(More)
Peripheral nerve injury afflicts individuals from all walks of life. Despite the peripheral nervous system's intrinsic ability to regenerate, many patients experience incomplete functional recovery. Surgical repair aims to expedite this recovery process in the most thorough manner possible. However, full recovery is still rarely seen especially when nerve(More)
INTRODUCTION Electrical stimulation of denervated muscle has been shown to minimize atrophy and fibrosis and increase force in animal and human models. However, electrical stimulation after nerve repair is controversial due to questions of efficacy. METHODS Using a rat model, we investigated the efficacy of short-term electrical muscle stimulation for(More)
BACKGROUND Incomplete recovery following surgical reconstruction of damaged peripheral nerves is common. Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) to improve functional outcomes has not been effective in previous studies. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of a new, clinically translatable EMS paradigm over a 3-month period following nerve transection and(More)
Nerve injuries cause pain, paralysis and numbness that can lead to major disability, and newborns often sustain nerve injuries during delivery that result in lifelong impairment. Without a pharmacologic agent to enhance functional recovery from these injuries, clinicians rely solely on surgery and rehabilitation to treat patients. Unfortunately, patient(More)
Electrical muscle stimulation following peripheral nerve injury has been a controversial method of treatment due primarily to the inconsistent literature surrounding it. In this presentation transcript I outline ongoing experiments investigating a clinically translatable daily muscle stimulation paradigm in rats following nerve injury. Results show that(More)
Traditionally, animal studies employing electrical stimulation for conditioning denervated muscle rely on 24-hour-based stimulation paradigms, most employing implantable stimulators. While these stimulators provide the necessary current to cause muscular contraction, they have problems with battery life, programmability, and long-term robustness. Continuous(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term muscle denervation leads to severe and irreversible atrophy coupled with loss of force and motor function. These factors contribute to poor functional recovery following delayed reinnervation. The authors' previous work demonstrated that temporarily suturing a sensory nerve to the distal motor stump (called sensory protection)(More)
In contrast to adult rat nerve injury models, neonatal sciatic nerve crush leads to massive motor and sensory neuron death. Death of these neurons results from both the loss of functional contact between the nerve terminals and their targets, and the inability of immature Schwann cells in the distal stump of the injured nerve to sustain regeneration.(More)
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has been used for decades to restore muscle function following neural trauma. Another promising use has been to maintain or increase muscle strength following injury. Unfortunately in the latter case there is considerable stimulation pain for the sensorially intact subject during effective levels of stimulation using(More)