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Bisphosphonates (BPs) and denosumab reduce the risk of spine and nonspine fractures. Atypical femur fractures (AFFs) located in the subtrochanteric region and diaphysis of the femur have been reported in patients taking BPs and in patients on denosumab, but they also occur in patients with no exposure to these drugs. In this report, we review studies on the(More)
Reports linking long-term use of bisphosphonates (BPs) with atypical fractures of the femur led the leadership of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) to appoint a task force to address key questions related to this problem. A multidisciplinary expert group reviewed pertinent published reports concerning atypical femur fractures, as(More)
To assess factors influencing the success of whole-genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases or families across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom previous screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the number of candidate variants identified using different strategies(More)
Adaptor protein-2 (AP2), a central component of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs), is pivotal in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which internalizes plasma membrane constituents such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). AP2, a heterotetramer of α, β, μ and σ subunits, links clathrin to vesicle membranes and binds to tyrosine- and dileucine-based motifs of(More)
Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) and MPS VII are due to loss-of-function mutations within the genes that encode the lysosomal enzymes alpha-l-iduronidase and beta-glucuronidase, respectively, and result in accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and multisystemic disease. Both disorders are associated with elastin fragmentation and dilatation of the aorta. Here,(More)
X-linked recessive hypoparathyroidism, due to parathyroid agenesis, has been mapped to a 906-kb region on Xq27 that contains 3 genes (ATP11C, U7snRNA, and SOX3), and analyses have not revealed mutations. We therefore characterized this region by combined analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and sequence-tagged sites. This identified a 23- to 25-kb(More)
We report a 32-year-old man and his 59-year-old mother with a unique and extensive variant of Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED) featuring histopathological changes of osteomalacia and alterations within TGFβ1 and TNFSF11 encoding TGFβ1 and RANKL, respectively. He suffered leg pain and weakness since childhood and reportedly grew until his late 20s, reaching(More)
The adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ2) is pivotal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of plasma membrane constituents such as the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Mutations of the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3), a disorder of extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) o) homeostasis. To elucidate the role of AP2σ2 in(More)
Four members of a family with an autosomal dominant form of cerebellar degeneration all had slow eye-movements, i.e. slow pursuit with absence of both nystagmus and rapid saccadic movements. Three showed progressive mental deterioration. One patient had nevus of Ota (oculodermal melanocytosis) and a history of grand mal epilepsy. In these four patients the(More)
Figure 7 summarizes the heritable disorders identified to date that directly involve the RANKL/OPG/RANK signaling pathway in humans. Activating mutations in TNFRSF11A encoding RANK and deactivating mutations in TNFRSF11B encoding OPG cause systemic bone disease (FEO, PDB2, ESH and JPD) featuring accelerated bone turnover, low bone mass, deafness early in(More)