Michael P. Kozar

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4'-n-Butoxy-2,4-dimethoxy-chalcone (MBC) has been described as protecting mice from an otherwise lethal infection with Plasmodium yoelii when dosed orally at 50 mg/kg/dose, daily for 5 days. In contrast, we found that oral dosing of MBC at 640 mg/kg/dose, daily for 5 days, failed to extend the survivability of P. berghei-infected mice. The timing of(More)
The 8-aminoquinoline (8AQ) drug primaquine (PQ) is currently the only approved drug effective against the persistent liver stage of the hypnozoite forming strains Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale as well as Stage V gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. To date, several groups have investigated the toxicity observed in the 8AQ class, however, exact(More)
A series of new guanidylimidazole derivatives was prepared and evaluated in mice and Rhesus monkeys infected with malarial sporozoites. The majority of the new compounds showed poor metabolic stability and weak in vitro activities in three clones of Plasmodium falciparum. Compounds 8a, 8h, 9a, 16a, and 16e cured the mice infected with sporozoites of P.(More)
The 8-aminoquinoline drug primaquine (PQ) is currently the only drug in use against the persistent malaria caused by the hypnozoite-forming strains P. vivax and P. ovale. However, despite decades of research, its complete metabolic profile is still poorly understood. In the present study, the metabolism of PQ was evaluated by incubating the drug with pooled(More)
A series of acid-stable carboxamide derivatives of 2-guanidinoimidazolidinedione (5a-c and 6a-c) were prepared as potential malaria prophylactic and radical cure agents. The new compounds showed moderate to good causal prophylactic activity in mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites. Three compounds were further tested for causal prophylactic(More)
Phenoxypropoxybiguanides, such as 1 (PS-15), are prodrugs analogous to the relationship of proguanil and its active metabolite cycloguanil. Unlike cycloguanil, however, 1a (WR99210), the active metabolite of 1, has retained in vitro potency against newly emerging antifolate-resistant malaria parasites. Unfortunately, manufacturing processes and(More)
Phenoxypropoxybiguanides, such as PS-15, are antimalarial prodrugs analogous to the relationship of proguanil and its active metabolite cycloguanil. Unlike cycloguanil, however, WR99210, the active metabolite of PS-15, has retained in vitro potency against newly emerging antifolate-resistant malaria parasites. Recently, in vitro metabolism of a new series(More)
Ketotifen is known to exhibit antimalarial activity in mouse and monkey malaria models. However, the low plasma levels and short half life of the drug do not adequately explain its in vivo efficacy. We synthesized most of the known metabolites of ketotifen and evaluated their antimalarial activity and pharmacokinetics in mice. Norketotifen, the(More)
In an attempt to separate the antimalarial activity of tafenoquine (3) from its hemolytic side effects in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency patients, a series of 5-aryl-8-aminoquinoline derivatives was prepared and assessed for antimalarial activities. The new compounds were found metabolically stable in human and mouse microsomal(More)
UNLABELLED Decoquinate has potent activity against both Plasmodium hepatic development and red cell replication when tested in vitro. Decoquinate, however, is practically insoluble in water. To achieve its maximal in vivo efficacy, we generated nanoparticle formulations of decoquinate with a mean particle size less than 400 nm. Three separate preparations(More)