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Our understanding of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is currently limited by difficulties in obtaining live neurons from patients and the inability to model the sporadic form of the disease. It may be possible to overcome these challenges by reprogramming primary cells from patients into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we reprogrammed primary(More)
Astrocytes in the CNS respond to tissue damage by becoming reactive. They migrate, undergo hypertrophy, and form a glial scar that inhibits axon regeneration. Therefore, limiting astrocytic responses represents a potential therapeutic strategy to improve functional recovery. It was recently shown that the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is(More)
BACKGROUND Prostaglandins, synthesized in the spinal cord in response to noxious stimuli, are known to facilitate nociceptive transmission, raising questions about their role in neuropathic pain. The current study tested the hypothesis that spinal nerve ligation-induced allodynia is composed of an early prostaglandin-dependent phase, the disruption of which(More)
Transient spinal cord ischemia in humans can lead to the development of permanent paraplegia with prominent spasticity and rigidity. Histopathological analyses of spinal cords in animals with ischemic spastic paraplegia show a selective loss of small inhibitory interneurons in previously ischemic segments but with a continuing presence of ventral(More)
To determine if spinal prostaglandins (PG) contribute to tactile allodynia, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with either intrathecal (i.t.) microdialysis or drug delivery catheters 3 days before tight ligation of the left lumber 5/6 spinal nerves. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT) were determined using von Frey filaments. Ligated rats developed tactile(More)
Previous rodent studies employing monotherapy or combined immunosuppressive regimens have demonstrated a variable degree of spinal xenograft survival in several spinal neurodegenerative models including spinal ischemia, trauma, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Accordingly, the characterization of optimal immunosuppressive protocols for the specific(More)
Tactile allodynia can be modeled in experimental animals by acutely blocking spinal glycine or GABA(A) receptors with intrathecal (i.t.) strychnine (STR) or bicuculline (BIC), respectively. To test the hypothesis that glycine and GABA effect cooperative (supra-additive) inhibition of touch-evoked responses in the spinal cord, male Sprague-Dawley rats,(More)
BACKGROUND Mutation in the ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase (SOD1) causes an inherited form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Mutant synthesis in motor neurons drives disease onset and early disease progression. Previous experimental studies have shown that spinal grafting of human fetal spinal neural stem cells (hNSCs) into the(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (or Kennedy's disease), spinal muscular atrophy and spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress 1 are neurodegenerative disorders mainly affecting motor neurons and which currently lack effective therapies. Recent studies in animal models as well as primary and embryonic stem cell(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by loss of both upper and lower motor neurons. ALS progression is complex and likely due to cellular dysfunction at multiple levels, including mitochondrial dysfunction, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, axonal dysfunction, reactive astrocytosis, and mutant superoxide dismutase expression,(More)