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Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) allows one to study functional connectivity in the brain by acquiring fMRI data while subjects lie inactive in the MRI scanner, and taking advantage of the fact that functionally related brain regions spontaneously co-activate. rfMRI is one of the two primary data modalities being acquired for the(More)
The primary goal of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) is to delineate the typical patterns of structural and functional connectivity in the healthy adult human brain. However, we know that there are important individual differences in such patterns of connectivity, with evidence that this variability is associated with alterations in important cognitive(More)
Sound repetition rate plays an important role in stream segregation, temporal pattern recognition, and the perception of successive sounds as either distinct or fused. This study was aimed at elucidating the neural coding of repetition rate and its perceptual correlates. We investigated the representations of rate in the auditory pathway of human listeners(More)
IMPORTANCE The study provides novel data to inform the mechanisms by which poverty negatively impacts childhood brain development. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the income-to-needs ratio experienced in early childhood impacts brain development at school age and to explore the mediators of this effect. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study was(More)
BACKGROUND Progressive decreases in cortical gray matter volume have been reported in schizophrenia. However, studies of progressive change in deep brain nuclei and hippocampal-amygdala formation have not yielded consistent findings. METHODS Two high-resolution, T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected 2 years apart in 56 schizophrenia and 62(More)
BACKGROUND Quantitative endophenotypes are needed to better understand the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The psychobiological model of temperament and character suggests that personality traits are heritable and regulated by brain systems influencing schizophrenia susceptibility. Thus, measures of temperament and character may serve as(More)
A rapidly increasing number of studies are quantifying the system-level network architecture of the human brain based on structural-to-structural and functional-to-functional relationships. However, a largely unexplored area is the nature and existence of “cross-modal” structural–functional relationships, in which, for example, the volume (or other(More)
OBJECTIVES Visual perceptual organization impairments in schizophrenia (SCZ) are well established, but their neurobiological bases are not. The current study used the previously validated Jittered Orientation Visual Integration (JOVI) task, along with fMRI, to examine the neural basis of contour integration (CI), and its impairment in SCZ. CI is an aspect(More)
Deficits in the volume of the thalamus have been observed in both individuals with schizophrenia and their nonpsychotic relatives. However, no studies to date have examined the underlying pattern of thalamic shape change in relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. This study examined the volume and shape of the thalamus in schizophrenia subjects, their(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities of basal ganglia structure in schizophrenia have been attributed to the effects of antipsychotic drugs. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that abnormalities of basal ganglia structure are intrinsic features of schizophrenia by assessing basal ganglia volume and shape in the unaffected siblings of schizophrenia subjects. METHOD(More)