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Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) allows one to study functional connectivity in the brain by acquiring fMRI data while subjects lie inactive in the MRI scanner, and taking advantage of the fact that functionally related brain regions spontaneously co-activate. rfMRI is one of the two primary data modalities being acquired for the(More)
Sound repetition rate plays an important role in stream segregation, temporal pattern recognition, and the perception of successive sounds as either distinct or fused. This study was aimed at elucidating the neural coding of repetition rate and its perceptual correlates. We investigated the representations of rate in the auditory pathway of human listeners(More)
The primary goal of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) is to delineate the typical patterns of structural and functional connectivity in the healthy adult human brain. However, we know that there are important individual differences in such patterns of connectivity, with evidence that this variability is associated with alterations in important cognitive(More)
IMPORTANCE The study provides novel data to inform the mechanisms by which poverty negatively impacts childhood brain development. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the income-to-needs ratio experienced in early childhood impacts brain development at school age and to explore the mediators of this effect. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study was(More)
BACKGROUND Quantitative endophenotypes are needed to better understand the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The psychobiological model of temperament and character suggests that personality traits are heritable and regulated by brain systems influencing schizophrenia susceptibility. Thus, measures of temperament and character may serve as(More)
The amygdala is a key region in emotion processing. In particular, fMRI studies have demonstrated that the amygdala is active during the viewing of emotional faces. Previous research has consistently found greater amygdala responses to fearful than to neutral faces in adults, convergent with a focus in the animal literature on the amygdala's role in fear(More)
BACKGROUND Progressive decreases in cortical gray matter volume have been reported in schizophrenia. However, studies of progressive change in deep brain nuclei and hippocampal-amygdala formation have not yielded consistent findings. METHODS Two high-resolution, T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected 2 years apart in 56 schizophrenia and 62(More)
The temporal dynamics of fMRI responses can span a broad range, indicating a rich underlying physiology, but also posing a significant challenge for detection. For instance, in human auditory cortex, prolonged sound stimuli ( approximately 30 sec) can evoke responses ranging from sustained to highly phasic (i.e., characterized by prominent peaks just after(More)
Using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the present study investigates changes in both gray and white matter in the APPsw transgenic mouse (Tg2576), a model of beta-amyloid plaque deposition associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). DTI analyses were performed in cross-sectional groups of transgene-positive and -negative mice at 8, 12, 16,(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities of basal ganglia structure in schizophrenia have been attributed to the effects of antipsychotic drugs. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that abnormalities of basal ganglia structure are intrinsic features of schizophrenia by assessing basal ganglia volume and shape in the unaffected siblings of schizophrenia subjects. METHOD(More)