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Positively charged antimicrobial peptides with membrane-damaging activity are produced by animals and humans as components of their innate immunity against bacterial infections and also by many bacteria to inhibit competing microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus xylosus, which tolerate high concentrations of several antimicrobial peptides,(More)
Although nosocomial infections by Staphylococcus epidermidis have gained much attention, this skin-colonizing bacterium has apparently evolved not to cause disease, but to maintain the commonly benign relationship with its host. Accordingly, S. epidermidis does not produce aggressive virulence determinants. Rather, factors that normally sustain the(More)
We report the development and isolation of a cell line, termed HepAD38, that replicates human hepatitis B virus (HBV) under conditions that can be regulated with tetracycline. In the presence of the antibiotic, this cell line is free of virus due to the repression of pregenomic (pg) RNA synthesis. Upon removal of tetracycline from the culture medium, the(More)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a major human pathogen. Traditionally, MRSA infections occurred exclusively in hospitals and were limited to immunocompromised patients or individuals with predisposing risk factors. However, recently there has been an alarming epidemic caused by community-associated (CA)-MRSA strains, which can(More)
  • M Otto
  • 2008
Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are the most frequent causes of nosocomial infections and infections on indwelling medical devices, which characteristically involve biofilms. Recent advances in staphylococcal molecular biology have provided more detailed insight into the basis of biofilm formation in these opportunistic pathogens. A(More)
Defensins, antimicrobial peptides of the innate immune system, protect human mucosal epithelia and skin against microbial infections and are produced in large amounts by neutrophils. The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is insensitive to defensins by virtue of an unknown resistance mechanism. We describe a novel staphylococcal gene, mprF, which(More)
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has recently emerged worldwide. The United States, in particular, is experiencing a serious epidemic of CA-MRSA that is almost entirely caused by an extraordinarily infectious strain named USA300. However, the molecular determinants underlying the pathogenic success of CA-MRSA are(More)
The opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis has become the most important cause of nosocomial infections in recent years. Its pathogenicity is mainly due to the ability to form biofilms on indwelling medical devices. In a biofilm, S. epidermidis is protected against attacks from the immune system and against antibiotic treatment, making S.(More)
Biofilms play an important role in many chronic bacterial infections. Production of an extracellular mixture of sugar polymers called exopolysaccharide is characteristic and critical for biofilm formation. However, there is limited information about the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and modification of exopolysaccharide components and how these(More)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a major problem in hospitals, and it is now spreading in the community. A single toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), has been linked by epidemiological studies to community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) disease. However, the role that PVL plays in the pathogenesis of CA-MRSA has not been tested(More)