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OBJECTIVE To assess the variability of transcranial magnetic stimulation paired pulse measurements of cortical excitability between subjects, between sessions and within subjects within sessions. METHODS In experiment 1, intracortical inhibition and facilitation were assessed with a fixed conditioning stimulus intensity (CSI) of 80% of active motor(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the variability of the duration of the contralateral cortical silent period (CSP) between individuals and to assess the effect of different transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse waveforms. METHODS In Expt. 1, CSP duration, and the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and area were measured in the first dorsal interosseous(More)
The pathophysiology underlying the involuntary tics of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) remains unknown. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the excitability of two different inhibitory systems in the human motor cortex: short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and short interval afferent inhibition (SAI) in 10 healthy(More)
BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare triplet repeat (CAG) disorder. Advanced, multi-centre, multi-national research frameworks are needed to study simultaneously multiple complementary aspects of HD. This includes the natural history of HD, its management and the collection of clinical information and biosamples for research. METHODS We report(More)
Decreased bone mass, osteoporosis, and increased fracture rates are common skeletal complications in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM; type I diabetes). IDDM develops from little or no insulin production and is marked by elevated blood glucose levels and weight loss. In this study we use a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model(More)
BACKGROUND Primary focal dystonia (PFD) is characterised by motor symptoms. Frequent co-occurrence of abnormal mental conditions has been mentioned for decades but is less well defined. In this study, prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, personality disorders and traits in a large cohort of patients with PFD were evaluated. METHODS Prevalence rates(More)
There is considerable evidence that Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is due to frontal-striatal dysfunction. Here we determine whether adaptive cortical changes occur that might ameliorate the effects of this dysfunction. Specifically we test the hypothesis that increased interactions between selected cortical areas may help compensate through(More)
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by an impaired ability to inhibit unwanted behaviour. Although the presence of chronic motor and vocal tics defines Tourette's syndrome, other distinctive behavioural features like echo- and coprophenomena, and non-obscene socially inappropriate behaviour are also core features. We(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of caffeine on motor thresholds, short interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI), intra-cortical facilitation (ICF) and cortical silent periods in a placebo controlled double-blinded trial. METHODS In eleven healthy non-smoking subjects the following parameters were measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS):(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies using quantitative methods, such as principal component factor analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and latent class analysis have suggested that Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) should no longer be considered a unitary condition as in current classification systems. OBJECTIVE To identify quantitative components of GTS(More)