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The pathophysiology underlying the involuntary tics of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) remains unknown. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the excitability of two different inhibitory systems in the human motor cortex: short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and short interval afferent inhibition (SAI) in 10 healthy(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the variability of transcranial magnetic stimulation paired pulse measurements of cortical excitability between subjects, between sessions and within subjects within sessions. METHODS In experiment 1, intracortical inhibition and facilitation were assessed with a fixed conditioning stimulus intensity (CSI) of 80% of active motor(More)
BACKGROUND Primary focal dystonia (PFD) is characterised by motor symptoms. Frequent co-occurrence of abnormal mental conditions has been mentioned for decades but is less well defined. In this study, prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, personality disorders and traits in a large cohort of patients with PFD were evaluated. METHODS Prevalence rates(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of caffeine on motor thresholds, short interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI), intra-cortical facilitation (ICF) and cortical silent periods in a placebo controlled double-blinded trial. METHODS In eleven healthy non-smoking subjects the following parameters were measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS):(More)
Decreased bone mass, osteoporosis, and increased fracture rates are common skeletal complications in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM; type I diabetes). IDDM develops from little or no insulin production and is marked by elevated blood glucose levels and weight loss. In this study we use a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model(More)
BACKGROUND Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder which has a significant detrimental impact on the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) of patients. However, no patient-reported HR-QOL measures have been developed for this population. OBJECTIVE The development and validation of a new scale for the quantitative(More)
There is considerable evidence that Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is due to frontal-striatal dysfunction. Here we determine whether adaptive cortical changes occur that might ameliorate the effects of this dysfunction. Specifically we test the hypothesis that increased interactions between selected cortical areas may help compensate through(More)
Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder with a high prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive disorder co-morbidities. Structural changes have been found in frontal cortex and striatum in children and adolescents. A limited number of morphometric studies in Tourette syndrome persisting into adulthood(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies using quantitative methods, such as principal component factor analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and latent class analysis have suggested that Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) should no longer be considered a unitary condition as in current classification systems. OBJECTIVE To identify quantitative components of GTS(More)
In this article we reviewed the results obtained with the technique of paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in normal subjects and in patients with movement disorders (Parkinson's disease, dystonia, chorea, Tourette's syndrome, myoclonus, essential tremor, and ataxia). Results on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical(More)