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OBJECTIVE To assess the variability of transcranial magnetic stimulation paired pulse measurements of cortical excitability between subjects, between sessions and within subjects within sessions. METHODS In experiment 1, intracortical inhibition and facilitation were assessed with a fixed conditioning stimulus intensity (CSI) of 80% of active motor(More)
BACKGROUND Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder which has a significant detrimental impact on the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) of patients. However, no patient-reported HR-QOL measures have been developed for this population. OBJECTIVE The development and validation of a new scale for the quantitative(More)
BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare triplet repeat (CAG) disorder. Advanced, multi-centre, multi-national research frameworks are needed to study simultaneously multiple complementary aspects of HD. This includes the natural history of HD, its management and the collection of clinical information and biosamples for research. METHODS We report(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the variability of the duration of the contralateral cortical silent period (CSP) between individuals and to assess the effect of different transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse waveforms. METHODS In Expt. 1, CSP duration, and the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and area were measured in the first dorsal interosseous(More)
There is considerable evidence that Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is due to frontal-striatal dysfunction. Here we determine whether adaptive cortical changes occur that might ameliorate the effects of this dysfunction. Specifically we test the hypothesis that increased interactions between selected cortical areas may help compensate through(More)
Decreased bone mass, osteoporosis, and increased fracture rates are common skeletal complications in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM; type I diabetes). IDDM develops from little or no insulin production and is marked by elevated blood glucose levels and weight loss. In this study we use a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model(More)
BACKGROUND Several measures of motor cortex excitability are abnormal in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). However, it is not clear whether these represent abnormalities of specific pathways or reflect a more widespread reduction of motor cortex excitability. Their significance for the clinical phenotype is also unknown. METHODS We measured motor(More)
The pathophysiology underlying the involuntary tics of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) remains unknown. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the excitability of two different inhibitory systems in the human motor cortex: short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and short interval afferent inhibition (SAI) in 10 healthy(More)
In mammalian cells, mitochondria provide energy from aerobic metabolism. They play an important regulatory role in apoptosis, produce and detoxify free radicals, and serve as a cellular calcium buffer. Neurodegenerative disorders involving mitochondria can be divided into those caused by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) abnormalities either due to(More)