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PURPOSE Early/initiating oncogenic mutations have been identified for many cancers, but such mutations remain unidentified in uveal melanoma (UM). An extensive search for such mutations was undertaken, focusing on the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, which is often the target of initiating mutations in other types of cancer. METHODS DNA samples from primary UMs were(More)
Metastasis is a defining feature of malignant tumors and is the most common cause of cancer-related death, yet the genetics of metastasis are poorly understood. We used exome capture coupled with massively parallel sequencing to search for metastasis-related mutations in highly metastatic uveal melanomas of the eye. Inactivating somatic mutations were(More)
Melanomas are notoriously difficult to classify because of a lack of discrete clinical and pathological stages. Here, we show that primary uveal melanomas surprisingly cluster into two distinct molecular classes based on gene expression profile. Genes that discriminate class 1 (low-grade) from class 2 (high-grade) include highly significant clusters of(More)
Uveal melanoma is the most common primary cancer of the eye and often results in fatal metastasis. Here, we describe mutations occurring exclusively at codon 625 of the SF3B1 gene, encoding splicing factor 3B subunit 1, in low-grade uveal melanomas with good prognosis. Thus, uveal melanoma is among a small group of cancers associated with SF3B1 mutations,(More)
PURPOSE Metastasis is responsible for the death of most cancer patients, yet few therapeutic agents are available which specifically target the molecular events that lead to metastasis. We recently showed that inactivating mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BAP1 are closely associated with loss of melanocytic differentiation in uveal melanoma (UM) and(More)
PURPOSE The molecular pathogenesis of uveal melanoma is poorly understood but is usually accompanied by amplification of chromosome 8q, suggesting the activation of one or more oncogenes. We recently identified a gene expression profile that distinguishes low-grade from high-grade melanomas. In this profile, a cluster of genes at chromosome 8q was(More)
PURPOSE Loss of chromosome 3 is strongly associated with metastasis in uveal melanoma and has been proposed as the basis for clinical prognostic testing. It is not known whether techniques that identify loss of heterozygosity for chromosome 3 predict metastasis more accurately than those that detect only numerical loss of chromosome 3 (monosomy 3). (More)
PURPOSE To compare a gene expression-based classifier versus the standard genetic prognostic marker, monosomy 3, for predicting metastasis in uveal melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Gene expression profiling, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) were done on 67 primary uveal melanomas. Clinical and(More)
Microarray gene expression profiling is a powerful tool for generating molecular cancer classifications. However, elucidating biological insights from these large data sets has been challenging. Previously, we identified a gene expression-based classification of primary uveal melanomas that accurately predicts metastatic death. Class 1 tumors have a low(More)
PURPOSE Aneuploidy is a hallmark of cancer and is closely linked to metastasis and poor clinical outcome. Yet, the mechanisms leading to aneuploidy and its role in tumor progression remain poorly understood. The extensive and complex karyotypic abnormalities seen in many solid tumors could hinder the identification of pathogenetically relevant chromosomal(More)